Telefonbuch

Found in Hobbycomputer #1 (c) 1980 Herwig Feichtinger (of EMUF fame!) improved by Nils Andreas, a phonebook

On the github page of Nils you can find source and executables.

In fact, it is a searchable text database.

The program is written, probably by hand, Herwig Feichtinger in the German magazine Hobbycomputer, Issue 1. Available on archive.org.

I took the source as typed in by Nils, added the comments from the (see below) listing in the article and made sure it was binary compatible with the listing. There are some problems with the first entry in the database.

Source, listing, article, binary, papertape of original version of Telefonbuch

; Target assembler: TASM 
;*****************************
;* Telefonbuch               *
;* (c) 1979                  *
;* Herwig Feichtinger        *
;*****************************
; typed in and checked by Nils Andreas
; comments entered from German listing into source
; checked for being binary compatible with original listing in HobbyComputer 1 1979
;
; Note that getch in KIM-1 returns with Y = $FF, used in this program to save two bytes?
; Testcase for the KIM-1 Simulator, which now emulates this getch behaviour
;
; Hans Otten, 15 december 2021
; 
CR     =       $0d             ; carriage return
esc     =       $1b             ; escape

crlf    =       $1e2f           ; KIM-1 print cr 
getch   =       $1e5a           ; KIM-1 read char for tty
space   =       $1e9e           ; KIM-1 print space tty
outch   =       $1ea0           ; KIM-1 print car on tty
incpt   =       $1f63           ; increment pointer
;
; zeropage
;
savy    = $f9
tablep  = $fa                   ; pointer into table 
bufferp = $df                   ; buffer
table   = $0200                 ; table starts here
;
         .org    $0000
;
start:   lda     #(table & $ff) ; low byte table address
         sta     tablep
         lda     #(table >> 8)  ; high byte table address 
         sta     tablep + 1     ; 
         ldx     #$17           ; 17 bytes clear
         lda     #$00
buffer:  sta     bufferp,x      ; clear buffer
         dex
         bne     buffer
;         
read:    jsr     getch          ; get ascii character
         cmp     #esc           ; escape? 
         bne     chkend         ; no
         iny                    ; yes, y = 0
chkfre:  jsr     incpt          ; increment table pointer 
         lda     (tablep),y     ; query buffer
         bne     chkfre         ; free space in buffer?
input:   jsr     getch          ; get ascii character
         iny                    ; y=0
         cmp     #esc           ; escape?
         beq     start          ; yes, back to begin
         sta     (tablep),y     ; no, store in table
         jsr     incpt          ; increment table pointer
         jmp     input          ; and again

chkend:  cmp     #CR            ; return?
         beq     zzz            ; yes, line ready
         sta     bufferp +1,x   ; no, store char in buffer
         inx                    ; increment buffer index
         cpx     #$15           ; is $15?
         bne     read           ; next character
;
zzz:     nop                    
         nop
;
newline: jsr     incpt          ; table after return
         ldy     #$00           ; search for character
         lda     (tablep),y     ; in table           
         beq     printquest     ; 
         cmp     #CR            ; found?
         bne     newline        ; no, search again
found:   ldx     #$00           ; yes, compare character in table
compbuf: iny                    ; with character in buffer
         lda     bufferp +1,x   ; no, compare table and buffer
         beq     printline      ; show it
         lda     (tablep),y
         cmp     #CR            ; return?
         beq     zzz
         cmp     bufferp +1,x   ; next character
         bne     found
         inx
         bne     compbuf
;         
         nop
         nop
;
printline:
         jsr     crlf           ; new line
         ldy     #$01
loadchar:
         lda     (tablep),y     ; load character from table
         beq     printquest     ; zero is ready
         cmp     #CR            ; return?
         beq     zzz            ; end of table entry
         sty     savy           ; save Y
         jsr     outch          ; and print character
         ldy     savy
         iny                    ; increment Y, next
         bne     loadchar       ; load new character
printquest:
         jsr     crlf           ; print return
         lda     #'?'           ; print ?
         jsr     outch          ; 
         jsr     space          ; print space
         jmp     start          ; return
;
        .end

Here the pages where the program is described and the listing shown.

Update to the KIM-1 Simulator

Nils, a very enthousiast PAL-1 user discovered in an old German magazine, 1979, HobbyComputer 1, a small phonebook program for the KIM-1.
It is a command line utility, extremely small and quite clever. See the post about it here.

So he entered the code in assembler and did some tests on his PAL-1 (it worked) and in the KIM-1 Simulator, which was not working.
He found the ‘database’ corrupted.

Of course I had to look at it and see what was going on. It had to be something about using zeropage pointers into the database.
And it was. In the source an instruction appeared:

INY  ; Y = 0

followed by an indirect addressing, Y into the database and preceded by a call to getch, reading a character from the keyboard.
Y was not used in the program before, so in the Simulator it was uncertain what the value was.

GETCH is known to destroy the Y register, delivering the character in register A. How is unspecified.
In the KIM-1 Simulator the KIM-1 GETCH is patched to the ACIA routines of the emulated 6850 serial interface.
Those routines do not use Y, so it is left untouched.

So time to study the KIM-1 routines. In the delay a bit routine the Y register is filled with the final state of a counter, TIMH.
It looks like the decrement ends with the value $FF, when the BPL becomes false, the whole purpose of the use of Y seems to determine that end of the loop?

 1ED4  AD F3 17  DELAY   LDA   CNTH30                           
 1ED7  8D F4 17          STA   TIMH
 1EDA  AD F2 17          LDA   CNTL30
 1EDD  38        DE2     SEC   
 1EDE  E9 01     DE4     SBC   #$01 
 1EE0  B0 03             BCS   DE3  
 1EE2  CE F4 17          DEC   TIMH
 1EE5  AC F4 17  DE3     LDY   TIMH
 1EE8  10 F3             BPL   DE2
 1EEA  60                RTS

Anyway, the KIM-1 Simulator 0.9.4. GETCH routine now returns with Y=$FF and the phonebook program seems to work.

DOS/65 sources

Different versions (from 2008 to 2021) of this CP/M for the 6502 system by Richard Leary hosted here.

Work in progress, hope to get more information from Richard!

with his permission

DOS/65

An operating system for the 6502. Published here with permission by the author Richard Leary, 2021.
In the following text “I” is Richard Leary.

What you will find here:

License
“DOS/65 software and documentation are provided as shareware for non-profit, educational, or private use. Any other use is prohibited without approval of Richard A. Leary.”

The DOS/65 V3 ROM software and all other DOS/65 software are free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the license, or any later version.

Introduction

Of all the problems which plague the 6502 enthusiast, the lack of a low-cost, compatible operating system is one of the most critical. The operating system, the media, and the floppy disk hardware of the common 6502 systems (Commodore, Apple, OSI, Atari, and AIM/SYM/KIM) are not compatible and can not readily be interfaced to systems other than the original. This incompatibility has been the major factor which has prevented the 6502 machines from achieving the status that other systems have achieved.

The challenge then is to establish a standard which minimizes cost, allows easy use by different systems, and ultimately will help make the 6502 and its derivatives the universal processor it is capable of being.
What Richard has done is attack the software side of the problem in order to make any 6502 system a truly workable disk based system. In addition a degree of compatibility is now possible not only between 6502 systems but with large parts of the world of CP/M systems. The result of my efforts is a system of software which Richard has named DOS/65.

DOS/65 itself is a software system which has the same basic structure as the foremost 8080/Z80 software standard, CP/M, and is file compatible with CP/M Version 1.4 and later versions. Since the machine language software obviously can not be compatible between the 8080/Z80 and the 6502, the term “file compatible” simply means that a DOS/65 diskette could be inserted into a CP/M system or vice-versa and the files manipulated in every way except actual execution.

The system could not tell the difference between files created on the host versus those created on a CP/M system. For example a BASIC-E source program which had been created, edited, and used on a CP/M system could be used on a DOS/65 system using the BASIC-E/65 compiler and interpreter with at most only minor changes. Data files of all forms could be exchanged between systems without restriction

The reasons for selecting CP/M as the standard are simple. CP/M has many features including:

  • Nearly total hardware independence
  • Easy access to operating system primitives
  • Easy alteration to accommodate system unique characteristics
  • Large library of compatible software that in many cases can be ported to DOS/65
  • Simplicity

None of these claims are overwhelming in themselves, but taken as a whole they stand as a compelling reason to use CP/M as the format and structure standard for a 6502 operating system.

CP/M is a trademark of Caldera.

Version 3, upto 2020

DOS/65 V3 can run from a read-only memory (ROM). To prove the concept I’ve implemented the ROM version on two different platforms. The first is the WDC W65C02SXB and the second is Daryl Rictor’s SBC2. In both cases I built an auxiliary board using Andre Fachat’s VIA-based SPI interface design. Both platforms are up and running with a micro-SD card as the storage media. Each system has four 8 MB drives provided by the micro-SD card. The interfaces are implemented as four layer printed circuit boards from Express PCB. Because the connector configuration on the two platforms are slightly different each is a unique interface.
Changes associated with DOS/65 V3.0 are small in number, they significantly improve the utility of DOS/65 especially for those users having some sort of high capacity mass storage device attached to their system.
The key changes are:

  • PEM and CCM changes to implement a CP/M 2.2 compatible “USER” area concept for storage devices.
  • Addition of a COPY3 transient that is able to set source and destination USER areas for any file copy operation.
  • CCM changes to implement a CP/M compatible batch command processing capability.
  • Addition of the CP/M compatible SUBMIT transient command to initiate batch command processing by CCM.
  • Change to SYSGEN to allow either .KIM or .HEX input files for the BOOT and SIM modules used when building a new system.
  • Use of the IOSTAT defined but previously unused storage location as a means of exchanging USER and DRIVE data between CCM and SIM.

All software has used 6502 op-codes and addressing modes. No 65C02-only code has been used.

Downloads:
Documents DOS/65 V3
Sources DOS/65 V3

DOS/65 for OSI

From http://osiweb.org/osiforum/viewtopic.php
Files come form here: https://github.com/osiweb/DOS65/tree/master/DOS65_v2.1

I released (sold in those days) a version for 5.25 inch drives for OSI and an eight inch OSI version. Development of these was frozen in 1986 as there was not enough demand to continue OSI support. I did normally ship DOS/65 as a two disk start up where the first disk was used under OS65D. I did the ROM because for all practical purposes I never used OS65D. If I remember correctly the 5.25 inch version need 9 or 10 diskettes and the 5 inch version a lot less because of the increased diskette capacity.

The SIM (system interface module) code – that is what talks to the hardware – was straightforward and could easily be expanded to handle larger capacity drives. I strongly recommend that for 5.25 inch systems.

DOS/65 manages disk use by dealing with 128 byte logical records. However because of the characteristics of the OSI floppy disk controller the physical sectors are full tracks and a full track is what is read from or written to the diskette. The SIM code maps logical records from or into the full track buffer. A physical track for the standard 5.25 in drive is 2048 bytes. Every track on a DOS/65 5.25 inch diskette is 2048 bytes long.


Downloads:
Documents OSI DOS/65
Sources OSI DOS/65

Version of 2008 on z80.eu: C64

C64 port of DOS/65
“What I (Richard A. Leary) have done is attack the software side of the problem in order to make any 6502 system a truly workable disk based system. In addition a degree of compatibility is now possible not only between 6502 systems but with large parts of the world of CP/M systems. The result of my efforts is a system of software which I have named DOS/65.”
Richard’s implementation is initially made for S-100 based systems, but he began to port it to the C64 also (see below).
DOS/65 has a lot of CP/M look-alike commands for the command line and also some applications like BASIC-E included.
Of course some differences between CP/M-80 and DOS/65 exist – the lowest memory areas (e.g. the “zero page”) are not usable for the TPA, so the usable system memory area starts at a higher address (e.g. $0400).

Richard has prepared two .D64 images
DOS65-1C.D64 (Bootdisk with updated SIM C64S304.ASM)
DOS65A.D64 (Blank disk)

Load the bootdisk with: LOAD “DOS65”,8,1:RUN

Downloads:
Sources DOS/65 V2 2008
Documents DOS/65 V2 2008

DOS/65 V3.03 65C02 version by Kevin Maier

Kevin, a.k.a floobydust enhanced the DOS/65 V3 system to his 65C02 system.

See the topics on the retrobrew forum 6502.org and his github repository.

Port DOS/65 to new hardware

What makes CP/M and DOS/65 special is the separation between hardware and the operating system with a well defined interface. In CP/M terms this is the BIOS, the only part to implement for new hardware. In DOS/65 system this is the interface module (SIM). Various examples are in the sources archives.
This part of the “V3 ROM Supplement”, see the V3 section illustrates how this works in DOS/65.

The first steps in implementing the ROM version of DOS/65 on a new platform are:

  • First, determine functions to be provided by the OEM monitor or other software that can support the overall DOS/65 processing needs. For example in the case of the W65C02SXB the only functions that would make sense to use for DOS/65 are the character I/O functions, i.e., those that support console I/O. The W65C0SXB has no storage I/O capability built into it so there was nothing to exploit in designing the system.
  • Second determine what resources are essential to performing the functions previously assessed as required. Then either allocate existing resources or acquire additional resources. That is exactly what was done for the SPI/SD interface. It did not exist but there was a VIA and a VIA was what was used by Andre Fachat in his elegant SPI/SD interface.
  • Third, test the resources assigned to ensure that the intended functions are provided correctly. For this step a standalone software package is recommended.
  • Finally, build the operational software around the resources and functions tested and conduct further testing as the software is built. This is precisely the process that was followed in the development of the SPI/SD interface and the ROM version of DOS/65. One key advantage of such a process is that problems are found when the complexity of the software is limited thus allowing easier debugging. It does not mean that problems will not be found at the top level but discovery should be at a sufficiently low level to allow clear resolution.

Implementation is straightforward. The basic DOS/65 software structure need not change. However, the specific addresses of functions may have to change as a function of the platform monitor or other software elements. The process of implementing D0S/65 for the SBC2 drew heavily upon the experience involved in producing the version for the WDC SXB but was actually simpler because of the capabilities provided by the SBC2 monitor.

The SD interface for the W65c02SXB based on Andre Fachat’s v1.1 design using a VIA and three eternal ICs.

KIM-1 Diagnostic board

Dwight Elvey designed and programmed a diagnostic board for the KIM-1, to determine what might be wrong with the KIM-1
The board switches off the 6530 ROMs and one can run tests on teh onboard ROM, looking for for defective RAM, defective LED display, defective 6530 ports.

Here I present the complete design of the board, with help and permission of Dwight Elvey, Santo Nucifora and Liu Ganning.

KIM-1 Diagnostic board

Dwight Elvey designed and programmed a diagnostic board for the KIM-1, to determine what might be wrong with the KIM-1
The board switches off the 6530 ROMs and one can run tests on teh onboard ROM, looking for for defective RAM, defective LED display, defective 6530 ports.

Here I present the complete design of the board, with help and permission of Dwight Elvey, Santo Nucifora and Liu Ganning.

Debug board connected to a KIM-1 (Photo by Santo Nucifora)

Triggered by post on twitter by Santo Nucifora (snuci) showing the results of his tests on his impressive KIM-1 collection, I connected to Dwight Elvey for permission to publish the design files.
Alas, Dwight did not have the circuit diagram, only the pcb drawings and binary of the ROM. With the aid of Santo Nucifora the instructions and sources of the debug board pack surfaced and the circuit could be reconstructed.

Debug board in action, defective transistors at LED display (Photo by Santo Nucifora)

Debug board in action,KIM-1 is healthy! (Photo by Santo Nucifora)

In November 20121 Liu. the designer of the PAL-1, asked help with his defective KIM-1, it was dead. So I gave him all the information I got from Dwight and he recreated the circuit, made a PCB and started testing his kIM-1.

From the vcfed.org forum, notes by Dwight Elvey

I’ve (Dwight) been debugging my KIM-1 and while doing so, hopefully helping others. What does one do when it doesn’t work? One can check some obvious places like the clock signals, reset pulse, interrupts and sync signal. Beyond that there is little that one can do with the monitor code dead. The problem could be any of the chips, from the simplest 7404 to one of the RRIOT chips. I’ve always said that one should write code and use an EPROM to test the functions of the board. Now I’m putting actions to these words. First one needs to create a place to put an EPROM if there is no socket. That is what I did for the KIM1. I have created a small board with a minimum of parts on a prototype board.

A little about the circuit. It is designed to run with a minimal amount of the KIM computer working. The processor has to be able to execute code and access the data but and addresses. The code I’ve written also expects the KIM’s address decoder chip to be functioning. In order to work, the debug board uses both connectors for signals. The expansion connector is mostly used but three signals are needed from the application connector. You’ll need 2 44 pin connectors.
The board disables the KIM’s ROM and takes over boot. One typically the sets the reset vector to $0C00 and assembles the code there (in other words the the reset vector need to be at $0FFC as the EPROM will be seen at $0FFFC as well as $0FFC, being dual mapped. In fact the EPROM will also be mirrored at every 1K if A15=1. This can be useful if KIM’s addresses decoder doesn’t work.
There are 2 LEDs on the debug board. One LED is on if it sees a access to the 1K space at $0C00 to $0FFF. It is not a fool proof indicator but if lit generally indicates that code is executing.
It can only be reset with the reset signal ( RS on the keyboard ). The other LED is a status light. It can be turned on and off from code. A write to $1000 of the D0=1 will turn it on and a write with D0=0 will turn it off. It provides a minimal feedback until KIM’s 7 segment LEDs are found to be functional. It also is needed to verify that the 1K RAM at address 0 is functional.
The RAM is needed to be able to use the stack and any zero page address. It can also be use to just blink to make sure a long running test is still working.

Downloads

Instructions

(from file DBINSTR.TXT)


Diagnostic Debug for the KIM-1 and 6530 to 6532 adapter

The diagnostic EPROM can hold up to 16 1K diagnostic or other programs.
Most of these diagnostic programs are intended to take over reset from 
the onboard ROMs in order to run various diagnostic test on the KIM-1 
hardware.
The control of which to boot from is controlled by the DB switch.
With a working monitor, it can be run by opening the DB switch.
The Diagnostic Debug board is also used to initialize the EEPROM on 
the 6530 to 6532 adapter with either the code for -002 or -003 ROM 
data. When the switch on the Diagnostic Debug board has the DB 
position turned on, the boot vevtors come from the EPROM on the 
Diagnostic Debug board.
Any 1K address above 8000H will be decoded from the 1k block selected
by the switch S0 to S3. Note that the switch between DB and S0 is not
used.
These 1k blocks are always decoded from 8000H as long as the DB switch
is on. This takes over the interupt and boot vectors.
There is always a 1K block decoded at 0C00 to 0FFF as well. This is 
available, even if booted from the monitors ROM, regardless of the DB 
switch position.
The main thing the DB switch does is allow the boot to happen from the
Diagnostic Debug EPROM rather than from a possibly defective -002
monitor ROM.
Each 1K test block is intended be run in sequence. This allows one to
test and diagnose a single area of the KIM-1 at a time. 
Many test depend on the passing of the previous test. An obvious 
example is if there is a RAM failure the display test is likely to
fail as well.
A failure of a later test may not be a positive indication that the
failure is what the test is testing for if a previous test has failed.
One should diagnose and repair the earliest test first.



Test 0  Flash
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 on
  S2 on
  S3 on
  This is a minimal test of the processor. All it does
is slowly flash the Green LED on the diagnostic board.
It is initiated by the reset switch, on the keyboard of the KIM-1
( RS ).
This test only uses the processor, addresss decoder and data bus.
If it fails to run. It will be a problem in one of these areas.
This test does not use any of the RAM in either the 2102s or in
either of the 6530 RAM areas. It only uses a few instructions and
is not a complete CPU diagnostic.
Remember the processor includes clocks and reset vector and possible
MNI stuck.
As a bonous some of the extra space has the program Astroids from the
First Book of Kim. It the normal KIM-1 monitor is running, one can
play if by setting the same switches as Flash except DB to off.
set the address at 0E00 and GO.
Use 0 and 3 to move your space ship to avoid the astroids.

Test 1  RAMTEST
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 on
  S2 on
  S3 on
 This test does a simple stuck at test of the RAM by writing and
reading 055H and 0FFH to each location in the 2102 RAM array. 
A passing indication is that the Green LED will blink at about 1
seconds rate for 8 time then on the 9th it will stay lit.
Should there be a failure the Green LED will blink out the failing
bit number. A 1 second blink indicates a good bit and a short blink
indicates a failed bit. After the 8th blink it will stay unlit.
If all the bits fail it may be an address decoder problem.
A single bit failure is likely a single RAM or the bus buffer.
The blink code starts with bit D0 and blinks through to D7.
This test does not test or use the 6530/2 RAM for vaiables during the 
test, other than the RAM it test. It only runs
in the processor's internal registers. This is not easy to do
for a 6502. This is the reason it doesn't also indicate the failed
address as well as the bit. This would likely need the variable space
that is under test.
Once this test passes, later test will assume that the RAM
on Page0 and Page1 are functional and use them as most 6502 programs
do.
There are still possible address errors that RAMs can have.
This test is initiated by the RS reset button on the keyboard.
As an example, a long-long-short-long-long-long-long-long
blink code would indicat that bit D2 was failing. In other
words the blink code is D0 first to D7 last. With the board
such that the key board is on the lower right, the RAM
chips blink from top to bottom for the blink codes. Each blink is
one RAM chip position.

Test 2  Display
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 off
  S2 on
  S3 on
This test the displays. It will also flash the green LED just in case
the display isn't working so that you know that the test is running.
It sequences 0000 00 to FFFF FF. Not much else to say here.

Test 3 KeyBd
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 off
  S2 on
  S3 on
This is used to test the keyboard. It test all the buttons.
Pressing RS will restart the test. ST will light the green
light ( use RS to turn it off if you like ).
The other keys will display the row and column for each button.
Refer to the schematic for a reference.
As an example, the E button will display 2 G.
Try each switch from 0 to GO to see what unique combination
is created. This test is run with the small, on/off, switch
on the keyboard in the OFF position.
This switch can be tested by using the single step function
as described in the KIM-1 Users manual, with the normal KIM-1
monitor.

Key table:
   ROW  COL
0   0    G
1   0    F
2   0    E
3   0    d
4   0    c
5   0    b
6   0    A
7   1    G
8   1    F
9   1    E
A   1    d
B   1    c
C   1    b
D   1    A
E   2    G
f   2    F
AD  2    E
DA  2    d
PC  2    A
+   2    c
GO  2    b

Test 4 CRC2
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 on
  S2 off
  S3 on
This test the ROM data for -002. It will flash the CRC generated
from reading the entire ROM. It should read C219. It does this
in a continuous loop. That is why the display flashes, because
it is rerunning the CRC code and not updating the display.
Any erratic value could be an indication of ROM failue.

Test 5 CRC3
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 on
  S2 off
  S3 on
This test the ROM data for -003. It is the same as CRC2 but the
CRC numbers are 5EA4 instead, for the -003 chip.

Test 6 64RAM2
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 off
  S2 off
  S3 on
This test the 64 bits of RAM in the -002 6530 chip. It uses the
March C algorythm. This is a very good test. If it passes, it says
'Good'. If it fails it says 'Bad nn' Where the nn indicates the
bad address. Say it displayed Bad C9'. That would indicate that the
address 1700 + C9 = 17C9 failed. Make sure to start the test from a 
clean reset by pushing the RS when changing the debug switches or
when powering up.

Test 7 64RAM3
 Switch setting:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 off
  S2 off
  S3 on
This test the 64 bits of RAM in the -003 6530 chip. It uses the
March C algorythm. This is a good test. If it passes, it says
'Good'. If it fails it says 'Bad nn' Where the nn indicates the
bad address. Say it displayed 'Bad 92'. That would indicate thath the
address 1700 + 92 = 1792 failed. Make sure to start the test from a 
clean reset by pushing the RS when changing the debug switches or
when powering up.

Test 8 EEPROM2
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 on
  S2 on
  S3 off
This is not really a test. This is code to program the EEPROM on
the -002 adapter module. The EEPROM on the adapter is not programmed.
this must be done on the KIM-1 by this program.
Install the adpater observing the proper orientation with the KIM
powered off.
The yellow jumper is for the -002 decode. It must be intact. The red
jumper enables EEPROM programming.
Set the switches as above and hit the RS button then power up. 
This loads the programming code into RAM. Make sure to
do a clean reset (RS) after setting up the switches for this code.
The programming code is loaded into RAM in a millisecond or so. The
only indication is that the RED LED will be lit.
The image for the EEPROM is a full 1024 bytes and the diagnosic code
window in memory is only 1024 bytes. It is not possible to have the
programming code and the ROM image in the same debug switch settings.
Once the code is in RAM, it waits for you to select the ROM image
by the debug switch settings.
You do this by changing the Debug switches to:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 on
  S2 on
  S3 off
Make sure the upper left keyboard switch is in the off position.
Now press the ST button. This causes a NMI interrupt that starts
the programming cycle.
The green light should flash quickly. This indicated that the programming
is continuing OK.
If the Green LED then goes off, the programming is complete.
If the Green LED comes on steady, the programming has failed.
It would be wise to test that the EEPROM is working. Hold the RS
button down and set the DB to off. Releasing the RS should start the
normal KIM-1 monitor( it usually requires the AD or some switch
selected to determine user input source.
If it is working, it is wise to now cut the red wire loop at the end
of the adapter board ( only the red wire the other is -002/-003 select ).
This blocks the accidental writes to the EEPROM. I recommend leaving
a little wire as you might want to change the programming at some
future time.

Test 10 EEPROM3
  DB on
  --
  S0 on
  S1 off
  S2 on
  S3 off
This is not really a test. This is code to program the EEPROM on
the -003 adapter module. The EEPROM on the adapter is not programmed.
this must be done on the KIM-1 by this program.
Install the adpater observing the proper orientation with the KIM
powered off.
The yellow jumper is part of the decode for -003. The yellow jumper
must be cut for -003 location. The red jumper enables programming.
Set the switches as above and hit the RS button then power up. 
This loads the programming code into RAM. Make sure to
do a clean reset (RS) after setting up the switches for this code.
The programming code is loaded into RAM in a millisecond or so. The
only indication is that the RED LED will be lit.
The image for the EEPROM is a full 1024 bytes and the diagnosic code
window in memory is only 1024 bytes. It is not possible to have the
programming code and the ROM image in the same debug switch settings.
Once the code is in RAM, it waits for you to select the ROM image
by the debug switch settings.
You do this by changing the Debug switches to:
  DB on
  --
  S0 off
  S1 off
  S2 on
  S3 off
Make sure the upper left keyboard switch is in the off position.
Now press the ST button. This causes a NMI interrupt that starts
the programming cycle.
The green light should flash quickly. This indicated that the programming
is continuing OK.
If the Green LED then goes off, the programming is complete.
If the Green LED comes on steady, the programming has failed.
It would be wise to test that the EEPROM is working.
You might run CRC3, Test 5 to verify or check the values
through the KIM-1 monitor.
It is wise to now cut the red wire loop at the end of the adapter board.
This blocks the accidental writes to the EEPROM. I recommend leaving
a little wire as you might want to change the programming at some
future time.
-003 EEPROM code has a large blank portion of code space near the
end. You might want to want some special code that is always resident
that you could put it this space. It is starting at 1A96 and ending
at 1BF9. This is 356 bytes for a small perminent piece of code.
Of course any change to the -003 EEPROM will also change the CRC3
results. It is wise to write it down to ensure it you still have
a -003 valid test.

This is all the test in Debug EPROM. The remaining switch locations
are available for other use. If you want the KIM-1 to boot to this
code make sure to put the reset vector at the end of the 1K block.
With the DB swith to the on position and a RS reset, it will run
the EPROM code. It can be run at 0C00 to 0FFF or at FC00 to FFFF.
If the DB switch is off, code on the EPROM must be started from
the KIM-1 monitor. It will only be seen at 0C00 to 0FFF and is
not seen in the upper memory window as it would be to boot to
the debug code.
There are 4 completely unused 1K blocks left in the debug EPROM. Also
if you look at each of the test, you'll note that most of the test only
use a small portion of the 1k block. One can always add one's code
in one of these blank areas. Just remember that the code will be
offset into the 1K window starting at 0C00.
Before adding of edition the debug EPROM, make sure to make a copy
of the original EPROM.
The unused bytes, of the debug 1K blocks are all 00s so the entire
EPROM would need to be erased and editied in an external image of
the EPROM before writng an new code.
The unused 4 1K block are 0FF and can be programed without erasing
the EPROM.

Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1 KB-6

I know KB6 existed. The ‘6’ stands for the precision in digits of the floating point number. In the documentation KB-6 is described.
Never seen a version in the wild. I know KB6 existed. The ‘6’ stands for the precision in digits of the floating point number. In the documentation KB-6 is described. Never seen a version in the wild. So the reconstruction here is not checked with the original, addresses in the reconstruction from the linker differ from the documentation.”>So the reconstruction here is not checked with the original, addresses in the reconstruction from the linker differ from the documentation.

Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1: KB9 update

More information on KB9 and a new faster and smaller version

Microsoft KB-9 Basic

Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1 (KB-9)

On this page you will find:


KB-9 stands for Microsoft Basic V1.1 for the KIM-1  with 9 digits precision. Actually, when you run it, it is called MOS Tech 6502 Basic v1.1 Copyright 1977 by Microsoft Co.
The ‘9’ stands for 9 digit precision floating point numbers. A KB-6 (6 digits precision) existed, but no copy ever turned up.

Downloads

Scanned manual
The original KIM-1 KB-9 Microsoft Basic V1.1, cassette audio wave, binary and papertape format
How to use, read this! Clear decimal, set vectors!

Resources

Articles on KB9 in the clubmagazine KIM/6502 Kenner:
– KIM Kenner 4 Siep de Vries Evaluatie 8K Basic, test of accuracy of KB-9, Dutch
– KIM Kenner 5 Uwe Schroder, English, Some Basic problems solved
– KIM Kenner 6 S. Woldringh Patches op 8K Basic Load and Save commands
– KIM Kenner 10 p 10 Microsoft Basic, Hans Otten.
– KIM Kenner 11 p 15 S. Woldringh Patches op 8K Basic part 2
– KIM Kenner 11 p 19 W. van Gelderen Read and Write on cassette for 8K Basic
(alternative commented scanned version here)
– KIM Kenner 12 p 15 Patches Microsoft Basic, Hans Otten. Trace mode Renumber
– KIM Kenner 14 p 39 Patches Microsoft Basic, Hans Otten. Calculated line numbers
– 6502 Kenner 16 p 49 Patches Microsoft Basic, W. Blonk Corrections on KIM Kenner 12
– 6502 Kenner 19 p 34 Patches Microsoft Basic, Hans Otten. Speed up Basic 10% with ROR
– 6502 Kenner 22 p 12 Patches Microsoft Basic part 1, van Nieuwenhove Koen, adapt KB-9 to Elektor Junior
– 6502 Kenner 23 p 12 Patches Microsoft Basic part 2, van Nieuwenhove Koen, adapt KB-9 to Elektor Junior
– 6502 Kenner 24 p 14 Patches Microsoft Basic part 3, van Nieuwenhove Koen, adapt KB-9 to Elektor Junior
– 6502 Kenner 25 p 6 Patches Microsoft Basic part 4, van Nieuwenhove Koen, adapt KB-9 to Elektor Junior
– 6502 Kenner 29 p 33 KB-9 Basic on Acorn SYSTEM-1
– 6502 Kenner 32 p 21 W. L. van Pelt KB-9 Basic Tokenized keywords and addresses
Language lab section in the 6502 User Notes:
– Vol 13 Basic tips, Renumber Page 1, Page 2
– Vol 14, Tips, Paging, Autiomatic Line numbers, the GET statement, USR function
Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4
– Vol 15 USR Dispatch, Load/save Basic arrays Page 1, Page 2, Page 3
-Vol 16 Line Editor Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4
-Vol 17 IEEE, Save Load cassette
Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4

Sources of KB-9 Microsoft Basic v1.1

Resources:

source in MAC format

Adapt KB-9, first step make it faster and smaller

In the previous section the pagetable article was shown, with resources to recreate from source many 6502 Basic’s, like KB-9.

Here an example how I, quick and dirty, used this to create a KB-9 named V1.2 which is smaller and faster than the original.

This is how I did it (Windows, can be done also on Linux)

  1. Download and unpack the archive of pagetable in a folder on your PC.
  2. Download and unpack the CC65 package, a C compiler, from which only the assembler and linker is used. I used the Windows binary.
  3. Copy CA65.EXE, LD65.EXE and longbranch.mac from the CC65 package to the folder where you unpacked the MS Basic source.
  4. Change whatever you like in the source. It is quite a complicated construction, with macros for every variant, so look carefully at the listing file what really is produced.
    Start with no adaptations and then go on studying the listing file and testing. The KIM-1 Simulator is a good tool for testing! Load the symbol table file to see what is where.
  5. Assemble and link with this simple batch file makekb9v2.bat, resulting in an object, a binary, a listing file and a symbol label file.
    ca65 -D kb9 msbasic.s -o tmp/kb9v2.o -l tmp/kb9v2.lst
    ld65 -C kb9.cfg tmp/kb9v2.o -o tmp/kb9v2.bin -Ln tmp/kb9v2.lbl
    
  6. Repeat step 4 and 5 until you are satisfied with the adaptations. The article listed above are a good source of inspiration.

First example: use the ROR instruction and suppress nulls sent to the terminal and Clear decimal
I changed this:

    • In define_kim.smake a comment of the following two lines:

 

; CONFIG_NULL := 1                      ; patch HO 2021
;CONFIG_ROR_WORKAROUND := 1             ; patch HO 2021
  • In init.s add this line at label COLD_START
    COLD_START:
    .ifdef SYM1
            jsr     ACCESS
    .endif
    .ifdef KBD
      .
      .
      .
    .else
      .ifndef CBM2
            cld                     ; patch for KIM-1 HO 2021
            ldx     #$FF
            stx     CURLIN+1
    

Assemble and link with the batch file makekb9v2.bat, this will deliver in the folder tmp/
– kb9v2.bin file : load as usual at $2000
– kb9v2.lbl text file
– kb9v2lst textfile

Start KB9 now at location $3F8E, label COLD_START (used to be $4065, so we gained some RAM)

Here is an archive with all files mentioned above.

And here the new KB-9 V1.2 executable, faster (no ROR instruction emulation) and a bit smaller.
You can test all this with the KIM-1 Simulator (version 0.9.3 lets you load CC65 type of symbol files)

KB-6

I know KB-6 existed. The ‘6’ stands for the precision in digits of the floating point number. In the documentation KB-6 is described.
Never seen a version in the wild. So the reconstruction here is not checked with the original, addresses in the reconstruction from the linker differ from the documentation.
Perhaps the ROR workaround or the insertion of CLD in the init.s caused this.

KB-6 it can be ‘reconstructed’ since other versions of 6 digit Microsoft Basic are in the ‘pagetable sources’.
It takes one define added in define_kim.s, changes on the original file are now:

; CONFIG_NULL := 1                      ; patch HO 2021
;CONFIG_ROR_WORKAROUND := 1             ; patch HO 2021
CONFIG_SMALL := 1                       ; patch H0 2021

Assemble and link as above. COLD_START moves to $3DF0, size shrinks to less than 8K.
Binary of KB-6 here.
As you can see in the following screenshots it works! Note the number of digits is less, as to be expected.

Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1 KB-9

Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1 KB-6, less precision, smaller program size

PAL-1 page updated

A lot has happened with the PAL-1, the active developed and available KIM clone.

So an update to the page with all the boards and manuals and modifications that appeared this year!