The KIM-1 has 2K ROM, in two 1K maskable ROMS of the 6530-002 and 6530-003.
The 6530-002 implements a TTY interface, a keyboard interface (hence the name Keyboard Interface Monitor) and 6 7 segment LED displays.
6530-003 is an audio cassette recorder extention of the KIM monitor.
On this page binaries and source listings and assembler sources for various assemblers.
KIM-1 / 6502 USER NOTES INDEX BY SUBJECT VOLUME 1(Issues 1 till 6)
APPLICATIONS FOR KIM GENERAL INFORMATION
Application suggestions 1 Correction To Memory Map -------- 2
Calculator--Interface 4 Defective 6502 chips------------- 3
Interface 6 Discussion of Memory Allocation - 5
--T.I.5050 5 DISPLAY (on board)
Chess Clock Program 4 red filter for-----------------5
CONTROLLING Use of------------------------------1,5
--- Function Generator 1 EXPANSION OF SYSTEM
--- Light Intensity 4 KIMSI--------------------------4
--- Motor Speed 4 MEMORY
--- Touch tone encoder 1 Adding memory to KIM-1--------5
Degree Dispatch Computer 5 Diagnostic------------------- 2,5
Frequency Counter 3 Expansion---------------------4,3
GAMES Using SD Sales 4K RAM Board 3
Bagels----------------- 5 Hardware tips
Battleship--------------6 Packaging KIM-1 --------------- 6,3
Horserace-------------- 3 Power Supply for KIM ---------- 4
Hunt the Wampus-------- 2 Red Filter for Display----------5
Jotto------------------ 5 INTERVAL TIMERS :
Kimmaze---------------- 4 The Other Timer-----------------2
Microchess------------- 3 and cassette 2
Mastermind------------- 5 Use Of--------------------------5,5
Moon Lander-----------1,3 MIKIM------------------------------5
HEDEX Program 1 OPERATION TIPS
MATH TEST Program 4 Using "SST"---------------------2
Mini-l Loran-c 6 Using "ST" to start programs----4
MUSIC:KlugeHarp 3,2,6,6 Page 1 Programming Problems--------6
Real Time Clock 4, 5 Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
Square wave generator 5 Power Supply-----------------------4
Stopwatch Program 2 Presetting 00f1, 00F2 4
Telephone Dialer 4,4 System Architecture 3
Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
CASSETTE PROBLEMS/SUGGESTIONS Presetting 00f1, 00F2 4
Certification of tape 6 System Architecture 3
Copying Cassette tape 3 TABLES for KIM-1
Fast tape problems 6 Interval Timer Table------------3
Hypertape 2,6 Relative Branch table----------2
Interval timer/cassette 1 OP Code table-------------------4
Notes on cassette 6 Techniques
PLL set program 5 Mnemonic Improvement------------41
PROBLEMS with Cassette 3 "Pseudo" BIT Data---------------41
Software control of tape Top Down Programming 4
reading 4 Modifications/ IMPROVEMENTS
Speed up 4 Crystal Stabilization------------5
Supertape 2 Factory Mods. -------------------4
Supertape improvement 4 6502 Register Monitor Apparatus 4
Tape Certifying 6 74Ls145 ------------------------ 3,4
Tape Dupe 4 6502 Microprocessor Board-----------6
Using Cassette 6 POWER ON RESET CIRCUIT 3
Varification of Data 4 NOTES FROM THE FACTORY 5
INDEX Issue 13
SOFTWARE FEATURE 1
KIM Hexpawn (your KIM can learn to win) Robert C. Leedon
6502 OP CODES (arranged logically for easy look up) Jim Butterfield 6
CASSETTE INTERFACE STUFF 7
Tape Verify II Dr. Barry Tepperman
Radio Tape Feedback Daniel Gardner
Reliability Hint John Watney
Help Relay Package Fixit Mike Firth
Tape File Recovery Routine Loel Swank
KIM Software On Cassette
LANGUAGE LAB 10
I/O Mods Editor
I/O Mods Marvin De Jong
A Basic Question Editor
Basic Timing & Comments F. E. Kempisty
KIM Basic Hint Micro-Z Company
Basic Renumber Program Harvey Herman
Two Tiny Basic Mods Michael Day
Ramblings About T.B. Lew Edwards
Forth Comments & Example John P. Oliver
Two Pass Patch To Aresco Assembler John Eaton
Mods To MSS Assembler Richard M. Bender
DESSIGN CORNER 16
A 6522 I/O Board
KIM-4 BUS PINOUT 18
VIDEO & GRAPHICS 19
Video Displays Editor
Comments On "Visible Memory" Lew Edwards
TVT-6 Adventure Dennis Chaput
TVT-6 RAM Expansion Michael Allen
Polymorphics Video Board Mods Editor
Slow Stepper IV Lew Edwards
LETTERS & COMMENTS 22
Multi-Mode Adder Jim Butterfield
Pseudo-Random Number Generator H. T. Gordon
ASCII Dump Program Jim Zuber
Keyboard Debounce Routine Thomas J. Rubens
Sound Effects Program Bob Carlson
Melodies For The Music Box Douglas Lyon
"Do Loops" For KIM Dave Skillman
Camera Speed Tester Mike Firth
Low-Cost Modem Possibility Editor
RPN Calculator Chip Interface Editor
Power-On Reset George Hawkins
The Outside World Connection Editor
More On The Opto-Isolator Dwight Egbert
NEW PRODUCTS 28
Video Driver Package
Price Decrease On Jolt Boards
A 8080 Simulator For The 6502
INDEX Issue 14
SOFTWARE FEATURES 1
KIM BANNER PROGRAM JIM ZUBER
CHECK-OUT ROBERT LARRABEE
LANGUAGE LAB 12
MOD AND PROGRAMMING HINT HEINZ JOACHIM SCHILLING
OUTPUT PAGING MOD DICK GRABOWSKY
RENUMBER ADDENDUM AND SOME MODS HARVEY HERMAN
AUTOMATIC LINE NUMBER ENTRY MOD SEAN MCKENNA
A NEW COMMAND DICK GRABOWSKY
'USR' FUNCTION INFO C. KINGSTON
SYM SECTION 18
ACCESSING THE SYM DISPLAYS A.M. MACKAY
SYM NOTES & KIM-4 COMPATIBILITY C. KINGSTON
WUMPUS & MUSIC BOX MODS JIM ADAMS
AIM SECTION 19
MANUAL CORRECTIONS JODY NELIS
VIDEO & TVT-6 23
POLYMORPHICS VIDEO/KIM INTERFACE MIKE FIRTH
TVT-6 NOTES & RAM EXPANSION MILAN MERHAR
INTERFACING TO THE TVT II JOHN M. RENSBERGER
CASSETTE STUFF 25
MAKE A SHORT CASSETTE TED BEACH
CASSETTE DIRECTORY PRINTOUT PROGRAM CHRIS MCCORMACK
ANNOUNCEMENTS & REVIEWS
Note that the Conver8bitHexFormat program is also capable of converting to and from Papertape format from many more formats.
Originally written for the launch of the MicroKIM, an older version is on the support CD.
When you attach a serial device like the teletype or a modern PC with Hyperterminal you can use the TIM monitor of the KIM-1. One of the functions is loading from and saving to a papertape device on the teletype. Now since this is a way to load and save data as a textfile this is in fact quite useful.
The Micro-KIM triggered me to modernize my conversion utility for MOS Technology papertape format dating from 1983, VAX/VMS and Turbo Pascal. A Windows and a commandline version are available.
KIMPAPER for Windows
A program for Windows to convert between papertape and binary format.
Not too modern, but handy, a commandline utility. Does exactly the same as the Windows program KIMPAPER. Runs fine in a commandline DOS box. Can also be compiled for Linux with Freepascal. In the KIMPAPER DOS archive the program, source and information on the program and papertape format can be found.
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
KIMPAPER [-[b|p] filename [startaddress]
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Syntax is: KIMPAPER [-[b|p|h] filename [startaddress] first parameter switches
-p convert to papertape
-b convert to binary
second parameter (first if no parameters, assumed binary to papertape)
name of file to convert
.BIN for binary, forces conversion to PAPertape
.PAP for papertape, forces conversion to BINary
third parameter (assumed 0000 if not present)
startaddress for BIN to papertape conversion
Files of type .BIN wil force conversion to papertape.PAP
Files of type .PAP wil force conversion to binary .BIN
C:\MICROKIM\kimpaper mastermind.bin 0200
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Start address 0200 in file mastermind.BIN
BIN binary, raw data, no formatting, no information on start address.
HEX formatted as hex numbers raw data, no start address included.
IHEX Intel hex 8 bit format, contiguous memory block, start address included.
PAP MOS Technology papertape format, contiguous memory block, start address included.
SREC Motorola 8 bit S record, contiguous memory block, start address included.
Convert KIM tape to text
KIM Tape to Text is a utility to convert between binary format of a KIM-1 tape dump to a DOS text file.
The KIM tape dump is a binary file and is just a dump of part of the memory of the KIM-1.
This binary file can be a text file as used in editors Micro Ade or CW Assm/TED.
By using the tape write routine in the KIM-1 one can write an audio file on cassette.
When this audio file is captured on a PC as WAV file (22K, mono) this can be converted back to a binary memory dump with ED’s Utility KIMTape
These text files can be converted to DOS text files with this utility.
First open the binary file. If this is recognized as Micro Ade or CW Moser format, the Save as text file can be used.
Note on detection of assembler editor type
1. Micro Ade file must start with CR: when present this is Micro Ade
line nr follows 2 byte
line ends with $0D
file ends with $40
2. Assm/Ted by CW Moser starts with line number $10 $00
end of line is high bit set
There may be rare situations that a file starts with a $0D or a different line nr. You can force CW Mose detection by changing this to a sequence of $10 $00 $0D and if necessary blanks $20 to make it consistent. If in doubts: use an editor that shows the file in hex (Ultra Edit, or the free Notepad ++, Text editor PRO) and study the tape file.
Methods to get the binary file out of a Junior or KIM-1.
Read the record tape into a binary with Ed’s KIMTAPE conversion *see below). It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS (https://www.vdos.info/) or DOsbox (slow).
Make a note of start address as shown by KIMTAPE.
Non-printing ASCII characters are filtered out of the resulting text file.
KIM Tape Convert WAV to BIN
Not my program, but so handy!
KIMTAPE v0.5 – tape conversion utility for KIM-1 and SYM-1 (2004-05-17) Local copy of http://dxforth.mirrors.minimaltype.com/#kimtape)
KIMTAPE allows programs stored on cassette tape to be decoded to a program file. It handles both MOS Technology KIM-1 and Synertek SYM-1 tape formats including HYPERTAPE. The reverse process – converting a program file to an audio wavefile is also possible, allowing one to produce perfectly regenerated cassettes. KIMTAPE works with 8-bit mono WAV, VOC or RAW audio files recorded
at 22050 samples per second.
Download: kimtap05.zip (MS-DOS) It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS (https://www.vdos.info/) or DOsbox (slow).
The binary files in the KIM-1 program archives have been reproduced, from the original cassette recordings, with the tool KIMTAPE on a PC in a DOS box. See Eds DX-Forth and Utilities Page for this and other nice programs.
This program also makes it possible to reproduce the original cassette recordings that can be read by a KIM-1.
The files were made as follows: The KIM-1 cassette audio was connected to the PC audio input and (with e.g. Audacity) recorded as a wave file (mono 22KHz).
For example: qchess.wav
The wave file was then converted with KIMTAPE to a binary file (the exact content of of the KIM-1 memory when recorded).
And the KIMTAPE utility then displays load address (for example and tape ID
c:\kimtape qchess.wav qchess.bin
KIMTAPE version 0.5 17-May-04
Program 01 address 0200 checksum OK xxxx bytes done
This .bin file (any extension is fine!) is NOT a wave file! It contains the exact content of the KIM-1 memory when recorded. The size is exactly the number of bytes as stored in the memory of the KIM-1 and much smaller than the wave file. This binary file can be converted back to a wave file with KIMTAPE or converted to a papertape file with KIMPAPER:
As you can see: you have to specify the load address and the program ID. The B parameter indicates hypertape speed (2 here, slow)
The resulting wav file should be acceptable for the KIM-1. It is (as I have tested) acceptable as input for KIMTAPE!
All command parameters can be seen by typing KIMTAPE without parameters:
Work in progress, 6502/65C02 CPU emulation, disassembler, TTY, KIM-1 keypad and LEDs.
The beginning of lots of fun, learning, member of the KIM gg Club and making and publishing in Radio Bulletin and the KIM Kenner.
In 2014 the big KIM-1 machine was finally taken down, the following photos showed the end result of many years of tinkering.
First the KIM-1, I still have it, in working condition, in my private museum. Changes still visible are a red acryl cover over the LED displays, a capacitor moved to the back to make it flat enough to fit the case I made and some supports to have it lay stable and safe on a table.
The first case I built from alu profiles contained the KIM-1, a backplane for 6 memory boards, a lot of power supplies (lineair, so heat was a problem!), a patch panel to access the expansion connector, cassette I/O, serial interface and various switches.
Mamory baords were made myself by drawing with Edding ink on the blank PCB, etching and drilling. Filled with 2102 RAM IC’s for 1K per board, it filled lower RAM of the KIM-1 $0400 – $13FF. The bus is a 31 pin DIN connector, based upon the BEM (Brutech) bus.
The next thing I built was a video display unit. All TTL 74XX logic IC’s, a 2513 character generator, a AY-5-1013 character generator, an ASCII keyboard, display on TV 32×32 characters uppercase. RS232 input/output to the KIM-1.
On top of the VDU a dual cassette deck is shown. From the famous dutch dump shop Radio Service Twente two audio cassette decks were bought, some audio amplifiers and power supply added, and a remote control circuit via a 6532 GPIO line (standard as in Micro Ade). Served me well for many years, in 2014 the decks strings were dried out and crumbled after many years of not being used.
Next was a real expansion cabinet with a long backplane for 32K memory with 8x 4K RAM card, 2114 based, Designed by me, published in Radio Bulletin and sold by Visser Assembling Electronics. BEM bus compatible.
Production 4K RAM card
Prototype 4K RAM card
In the expansion cabinet three slots were added for I/O. Two cards were designed by me and published in Radio Bulletin: an ACIA card for two 6850 Motorola ICs, and a PIA card for two PIAs, 6522 or 6520 or 6820 or 6821. I never used more than one ACIA and one PIA card. Shown are the prototype cards, in the article production quality PCBs were used.
On one of the ACIAs a VT100 Digital Equipment terminal was connected, taking over from the bit banged serial interface and the homebuilt video display. ON the other ACIA a Heathkit H14 matrix printer was added, a mediocre but adequate printer.
Together with Micro Ade as assembler and editor, the dual cassette deck, 40K RAM In total, this was a nice machine! Until 1987, when I bought the Spectravideo X’Press 738 MSX and CP/M system, used for all my publishing activities.
A third expansion cabinet was built around 1983. It was driven by the PIA’s, the Radio Bulletin Grafisch Display was inside the cabinet, along with two MDCR Philips Digital cassette recorders, alo published in Radio Bulletin. The speed difference between Hypertape audio cassettes and 2400 baud MDCR speed was not that impressive.
In 1978 I bought my first computer, a KIM-1. It turned out to be a Rockwell rebadged Rev F Mos Technology board.
The Focal programming language Version 3d for the KIM-1A small interpreter (about 5K) for a convenient interpreted language.
Requires memory from $2000 and up. Has some terminal echo problems. The scanned manual Disassembled source by Paul R. Santa-Maria
Micro-ADE was the working horse for many KIM-1 users, the small and powerfull assembler/editor written by Peter Jennings.
Manual and program are placed here with permission by Peter Jennings (thank you Peter for this and for a great program!). Scanned manual Source in scanned format (from a bad photocopy):
The frontpage is shown on the right.Also this program was enhanced by the KIM Club, resulting in version 9.0, present in the program archive. Page 1 and 2 of the command summary.
Read in the KIM KENNER archive the source of the enhancements (text by S.T. Woldringh o.a.).
KIM Tape Copy v1.1, copy all files on a KIM cassette. Uses two recorders attached as shown in Micro Ade manual.
On this page some information on the Jolt and Super Jolt are presented, the result of a Internet research for Kolt, Super Jolt and Microcomputer Associates. Thsi small company played an inmportant role in the 6502 SBCs, TIM, KIM-1 and SYM-1 all contain results of their work.
Jolt was the first 6502 singleboard computer. On December 1975, the coveted inside-front-cover of Byte magazine contained a two-page advertisement for “the world’s lowest cost computer system”. This was perhaps the first non-MOS Technology 6502 based computer system to come to market, The computer was named Jolt, and it was marketed by Microcomputer Associates Inc. (MAI) as both a kit for $249, or fully assembled and tested for $348 (Dec. 1975 Byte). Microcomputer Associates also sold add-ons for the basic system. They included 4 kilobytes for $265, an I/O card for $96, and a power supply for $145. Either at that time or shortly later MAI expanded the line to a RAM card and an EPROM card using 2702 PROMS. The boards were about 4″x6″ arranged in a vertical stack jointed by a ribbon cable. Only 5 volt power was needed. Software available in PROM was RAP (Resident Assembler Program) and Tiny Basic from Tom Pittman.
As can be seen in the photos of the Jolt front, back and experimenters card below, the system is quite simple. In fact it is a TIM system (the 6530-004 is the middle IC), with a 6502 at the right and a 6820 PIA on the right. Some glue logic on the right and the top, RAM on the bottom (4x 2111 for 512 byte memory) and RS232 TTY interface at the right (1488, 1489 line drivers). The system clock was a RC at 750 KHz, in the photo the clock is a 1 MHz crystal added later.
The TIM IC, 6530-004,contains the ROM (1K), timers, 128 byte RAM, 16 I/O) and 64 bytes RAM. The PIA 6820 adds another 16 bit I/O.
Jolt was designed and developed by Ray Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT. This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A.I. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, so they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!
Synertek acquired Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, consisting of engineers Manny Lemas and Ray Holt, after which it was renamed Synertek Systems, Inc. and established as a subsidiary. In 1978, Synertek Systems released a 6502-based single board computer/evaluation kit called the SYM-1, a derivative of MOS Technology/Commodore Semiconductor Group’s KIM-1. The Super Jolt was still sold by Synertek in 1985 (see the Super Jolt
JOLT SPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY
(See the Microcomputer Associates Catalog in PDF format here)
• MOS Technology 6502 CPU
• MOS Technology 6530 with DEbug MONitor (a 653-004 TIM)
• 750 KHz clock operation-RC controlled or crystal controlled with user supplied crystal.
• 512 bytes RAM
• 64 bytes RAM-located at interrupt vector locations
• Expandable address & data lines
• Direct drive to 8 K bytes of memory
• 26 Programmable I/O lines
• Two hardware interrupts
• Serial interface for 20 ma current loop and EIA RS232C
• 4.25″ x 7″ printed circuit card
• Compatible with other JOLT cards
JOLT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The JOLT system consists of a set of modular microcomputer boards which can be used singly or tied together to produce any desired microcomputer system configuration. The minimum system is one CPU board. which alone constitutes a viable computer system complete with central processor. 1/0. interrupts. timer. read/write memory. and a complete software debug monitor in read-only memory. Additional boards in the JOLT system include a 4 K byte RAM , 1/0. Power Supply and blank Universal Interface board. A large JOLT system could have up to 32 K bytes of RAM memory. up to 128 lines of bidirectional 110 and 16 interrupts. JOLT boards come in kit form or assembled. and are ready to use in any form. from home hobby kits to industrial applications. All JOLT components are new. fully tested and fully warranted by MAI.
The internal oscillator operates in a “free run” mode with a capacitor and variable resistor supplied on the CPU printed circuit board. The frequency of oscillation may be adjusted with the variable resistor. If a very stable clock is required by the system a crystal may be added to the CPU board.
The RESET input to the CPU is pulled to logic ground by an RC circuit (t=33 milliseconds) on the printed circuit board. The CPU normally fetches a new program count vector from hex locations FFFC and FFFD upon activation of the RESET line, but these locations are in the interrupt vector RAM and therefore volatile. Hardware on the CPU board causes the CPU to begin executing the monitor program by forcing the effective sixteenth bit of the address bus to a logic ZERO during reset. As a result, the RESET function on the JOLT CPU card causes the debug monitor (DEMON) to begin executing.
There are two interrupt inputs to the CPU. One interrupt is maskable under program control (IRQ) and the other (NMI) is not.
A READY control line provides for asynchronous operation with slow memory or I/O devices.
The address bus (A0-A15). the data bus (00-07). the two phase clock (PHI). the reset line (RESET). the interrupt lines (IRQ and NMI). and the ready line (RDY) are all available at the edge connector of the CPU board. The loading restrictions should be considered when using the signal lines driven by the CPU for external system expansion.
There are 512 bytes of program RAM provided on the CPU card. The program RAM is hardwired addressed as the first 512 bytes of the CPU’s 64 K of memory address space. It may become necessary to remove these RAM’s from their sockets if a 4 K memory card is also hardwired in this address space. The program RAM on the CPU card uses NMOS RAM chips type 2111, 512×4 bytes.
Monitor ROM and Interrupt Vector RAM
The monitor ROM is located in the last 1 K bytes of the lower half of memory space (first 32 K bytes). The interrupt vector RAM is located in the last 64 bytes of the 64 K memory address space. The monitor ROM and the interrupt vector RAM as well as additional I/0 are implemented with a single 6530 chip, the 6530-004 TIM
Programmable User I/0
The programmable I/0 lines available from the CPU card are provided by a Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) and a 6530 ROM chip. The PIA has two 8-bit 1/0 ports with two interrupt-causing control lines each. Two jumpers are provided on the card which connects one or both PIA interrupt outputs to the CPU IRQ interrupt line. Refer to the CPU assembly drawing for proper identification of the jumpers. A Data Direction Register for each port determines whether each 1/0 line is an input or an output. The 6530 ROM chip provides 10 additional I/O lines that may also be specified as input or output lines under program control. There are eight 1/0 lines from one port on the 6530 and two 1/0 lines from the second port. These I/0 lines may be used in conjunction with DEMON for interfacing a high speed paper tape reader to the CPU card. In the paper tape reader application, the eight 1/0 lines from one port are used as inputs and two I/0 lines from the second port are used to accomplish the handshake control between the reader and the CPU card.
The PIA is hardwired addressed as location 4000 to 4003 in the memory address space. Memory addresses from 4000 to 4003 are allocated for PIA devices so that the JOLT system may be easily expanded to accommodate up to eight PIA chips. The 6530 uses addresses from 6200 to 6E07 for eight I/0 functions. The unused memory addresses occur because address bits A10 and A11 are ignored to simplify address decoding. The 6530 I/0 lines may be referred to as Monitor I/0 because these lines are commonly used for a high speed paper tape interface. See the TIM page for more information on timers and I/O.
Standard Interface Circuits
The JOLT CPU card provides direct interfacing with a 20 mA current loop and RS232C terminal. The 20 mA current loop requires +5 v and -10 v whereas the RS232C interface requires +12 v and -10 v. Both interfaces are wired in parallel on the input and output thereby allowing both interfaces to be used simultaneously.
JOLT SYSTEM MEMORY MAP
The memory map on the following charts explains what functions have been assigned to each segment of the JOLT address space. It is recommended that users respect this space allocation when adding memory and peripherals to their JOLT systems. Space has been reserved for 32 K bytes of user RAM or ROM, seven additional PIA devices, and’up to 512 user I/O device registers. Other areas are reserved for JOLT expansion, new JOLT peripherals and memory options will use these spaces. Users are advised to not use JOLT expansion space unless absolutely necessary. Note that some areas used by the JOLT CPU board and PIA boards have more space indicated than there are registers or locations in the device occupying them. This is because these devices do not decode all address bits, or use some of the address bits for special functions. For example, the 6530 timer determines the time scale and interrupt enable/disable by the address used to access it. Thus, these “partly filled” areas are actually entirely used and are not available for other uses.
(1) Standard on JOLT CPU board.
(2) Available to user-not used by DEMON.
(3) To get enable-interrupt address, add 0008 to disable-interrupt address with corresponding functions.
(4) Reserved for DEMON use, TTY control and reset functions
DEbug MONitor (TIM 6530-004)
The JOLT CPU card comes complete with DEMON, MAl’s debug monitor program. The program is located in the 1,024 byte, Read Only Memory (ROM) of the multi-function 6530 chip and is therefore
completely protected against any alteration. DEMON provides a permanently available general purpose monitor program to aid users in developing hardware and software for MAl’s JOLT series of microcomputers.
DEMON’s Features Include:
• Self adapting to any terminal speed from 10-30 cps,
• Display and Alter CPU registers,
• Display and Alter Memory locations,
• Read and Write/Punch hexadecimal formatted data,
• Write/Punch BNPF format data for PROM programmers,
• Unlimited breakpoint capability,
• Separate non-maskable interrupt entry and identification,
• External device interrupts directable to any user location or defaulted to DEMON recognition,
• Capability to begin or resume execution at any location in memory,
• Completely protected, resident in Read Only Memory,
• Capability to bypass DEMON entirely to permit full user program
control over system,
• High speed 8-bit parallel input option, and
• User callable I/O subroutines.
DEMON’s Command Set Includes:
.R Display registers (PC,F,A,X,Y,SP)
.M ADDR Display memory (8 bytes beginning at ADDR)
: DATA Alters previously displayed item
.LH Load hexadecimal tape
.WB ADDR1 ADDR2 Write BNPF tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.WH ADDR1 ADDR2 Write hexidecimal tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.G Go, continue execution from current PC address
.H Toggles high-~peed-reader option (if its on, turns it off; if off, turns on) See the TIM manual for more information on DEMON, the name MAI uses for the TIM program.
RAP — 1.75K Byte Resident Assembler Program (This looks like a predecessor of the RAE of the SYM-1). The JOLT Resident Assembler Program (RAP) is designed for use on JOLT systems equipped with at least 4K bytes of RAM memory. RAP has some significant advantages over conventional assemblers:
1. Resident as part of the JOLT system on PROM chips. The assembler never has to be read into volatile memory before use. It, just like the DEMON monitor, is instantly available. In addition, costly time sharing services are not needed for cross assemblies.
2. Operates on one pass of the source code. The source tape is read in only once, thereby increasing assembler speed by a factor of two over conventional assemblers that make two or three passes over the source code.
3. Small in size. The assembler is smaller by a factor of 4 or 5 over comparable assemblers. Its size guarantees the smallest number of PROM chips needed and minimizes printed circuit board space requirements. With the assembler PROM chips installed in your JOLT PROM board (at address E800 hex), the assembler may be activated by reading the source code input on the console input device and transfering to location E800 hex using the DEMON monitor. As source code is being read in, a listing is produced on the console printer and the object code is generated directly into RAM at the addresses specified by the origin directive (.ORG).
After the assembly is complete, the object code may be punched onto paper tape or executed directly using DEMON. The assembler assumes RAM at locations 1FFF hex and lower to be available for symbol table usage. RAP uses an efficient symbol table algorithm and users can normally expect that about 4 to 6 bytes of RAM will be used for each symbol or that a 3000 byte program would use approximately 800 bytes for the entire symbol table (locations 1CEO to 1FFF hex). This space need not be left unused if buffers,’ etc. are allocated to it. The Resident Assembler Program is compatible with the MAS Technology Cross Assembler with the following exceptions:
1. Expressions and * (used for current program counter) are not allowed.
2. Thee .OPT and .PAGE pseudo operations are not implemented.
3. Octal and binary numbers are not implemented.
4. .ORG is used instead of *= to origin program.
5. .RES is used for reserving storage.
The Jolt microcomputer was released in 1975 by Microcomputer Associates. The company was founded by Ray Holt and Manny Lemas. The company was later acquired by Synertek, a second source manufacturer of the 6502, and renamed Synertek Systems. Synertek went on to produce the popular SYM-1 microcomputer. Ray Holt’s business partner was Hispanic and he used to call Ray “Jolt” which is the reverse-anglicized spelling of the word HOLT if written in Spanish. i.e “Jolt” in Spanish is pronounced “holt”. There were about 5000 JOLT units produced, first designed in 1974, far pre-dating the Apple I.
Hear it from Ray Holt from an interview on YouTube:
Audio recording of VCF sessions:
Manny Lemas https://archive.org/details/VCF2-MannyLemas-SynertekAndTheSYM1SingleBoardComputer
Ray Holt https://archive.org/details/VCF2-RayHolt-JOLTAndTheSynertekSYM1SingleBoardComputers
A newsletter was published, this one in PDF format is from 1977 and contains some Tiny Basic programs for JOLT and Super Jolt.
The Jolt is somewhat famous for the part it played in the development of the prototype Atari 2600 VCS, which was assembled using the Jolt computer board, (source atarimuseum)
This photo is one of the original wirewrapped prototypes for “The Worlds Most Popular Video Game” aka… The Atari Video Computer System (VCS) Model #2600. The interesting and eye catching part of the unit besides the extremely intricate hand wired area (TIA perhaps?) are the controllers, you look and say “Hey those don’t look like the standard CX-40 joysticks I’ve come to know and love all these many years!” The controllers are actually from the Atari/KeeGames TANK coin-op arcade game. The actual Atari VCS joysticks would later come from a home console game of TANK which was sold under the Sears exclusive brand label. The Atari Tank joysticks for a one player would act as left and right treads on the home tank game and then they popped out of the rectangular home console and could be used for two player action and would allow each user to use one joystick just like Atari VCS Combat (CX-2601).
The above prototype designed by Ron Milner and Steve Mayer in Grass Valley, Ca. at Cyan Engineering (a company owned by Atari, Inc.)is actually a combination of many parts. The wirewrap board was the original version of the STELLA chip. The boards to the right are a memory board and a “Jolt” 6502 board ) and on the far left is a 5V power supply. The above Stella prototype had actually been thrown out in the garbage at Atari at one point. Owen Rubin, one of Atari’s first programmers had found it in the trash and recovered this piece of history and placed it into the safe hands of Atari’s Employee #3, who built the first Atari Pong, Allan Alcorn.
Jolt was designed and developed by Raymond M. Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. In the late 1990’s Holt was finally given government permission to discuss his role in the development of the F-14 Tomcat. Holt claims he designed and developed the worlds first microprocessor one year before Intel. Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT. This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!
I bought the first Jolt microcomputer out the door. I saw its advertisement (in Byte?) and was just starting a project in security access control. We were doing a crash project to demonstrate reading magnetic striped ID badges for Honeywell. We needed to accept a real-time bit sequence, extract numeric data and do a simple name vs. number lookup. An ideal job for a small processor. But remember, this was 1976. Development systems cost $5,000+ and none were offered for the 6502. (Later, MOS Technology offered one and Rockwell had a very good one.) I ordered a Jolt system on a Wednesday or Thursday and was told Microcomputer Associates Inc. (Manny Lemas and Ray Holt) was awaiting the first silicon of their DeMon monitor to come by air from MOS Technology in two days, on Saturday. DeMon was a one chip Debug-Monitor containing 1K of ROM, 512 bytes of RAM, paralled IO, an ASCII serial interface and a monitor program. With the 6502 processor and a simple clock you could have a two-chip microcomputer. DeMon was later renamed Tim, Terminal Input Monitor. MAI received their first DeMon chips about 9 AM Saturday morning, plugged in one, it ran, and I picked up the first unit at noon at their office. IIRC the Jolt had an inked-in serial number 0 or 1. Over the week-end I built a teletype interface as Jolt had a voltage output while the Teletype had current loop.
The Super Jolt is a evolution of the JOLT. Same CPU, 1 MHz clock, same TIM IC, same PIA, more RAM (1K), sockets for EPROMS, RAP and Tiny Basic in ROM.
Sold under the name CP110 by Synertek in 1985, Microcomputer Associates had become the core of Synertek Systems.