Convert to Papertape V2.2

On the Utilities page I have two programs to convert to MOS Technology papertape format: KIMpaper, a command line utility, and ConvertHexFormat, a GUI app.

All in Freepascal/Lazarus source format, and tested on Linux (Raspberry PI OS) and Windows 10 64 bit. So the programs will run everywhere Lazarus is available (MS DOS, WIndows, Linux Mac OS).

KIMPAPER  is written at the time the Micro-KIM appeared. CLI utility.  Supports Binary to/from Papertape.  Still runs fine on all platforms supported by Freepascal (Windows, MS DOS, Linux etc) after a recompilation, source available.

ConvertHexFormat is a more recent GUI utilitilty with many more 8 bit hex formats as input and output.

There were some bugs of course in older versions. V2 added the ability for multipart hex formats, records having a non-consecutive load address. That seems to wok fine since V2.1
In 2.2 a bug in MOS Papertape format for bigger files is fixed, the end-of-file record (record type 00, total line count) had a bug in the checksum calculation. KIMPAPER is and was correct in the calculation.
But in ConvertHexFormat it was wrong (as it still  is in the well known srec utility in the Unix world!).


PC utilities updated

The PC utilities page has seen an update of th4 Conversion hex formats utility.

Programs to manipulate the binary and hex formatted files of interest for SBC owners. Intel hex, MOS papertape, Motorola S-record, binary, hex conversion fort eh 8 bit world.
Runs on Windows, Linux, Mac due to Lazarus and Freepascal. Source included.

Microsoft Basic 6502

Written in 1976, Microsoft BASIC for the 8 bit MOS 6502 has been available for virtually every 6502-based computer. Also for the SBC’s on this site: KIM-1, SYM-1, AIM 65 and as a port of Applesoft on the Apple 1.

Binary versions and manuals are on the pages dedicated to these machines:

Sources of early Microsoft Basic on 6502 are available on pagetable blog by Michael Steil

Build binaries from source on a Linux system (Raspberry PI OS)

First install CC65 package, the assembler and linker are required.

You need the CC65 package, a C and Macro assembler and linker for the 6502. is broken, is fine.

git clone
cd cc65
sudo make avail

Now get the MS Basic source and assemble the binaries
git clone
cd msbasic
cd tmp

and you will see a directory of binaries (.bin), symbol table (.lbl) and object files (.o)

Compare the binary files with the binary files in the msbasic/orig folder and you will see hopefullyy they are identical!

It is not only nice to see the source, now you are able to customize a Microsoft Basic to your likings.

Steps as advised in the pagetable description:
1. Create a .cfg file by copying an existing one.
2. Adapt the make file for the new target.
3. Change the platform specific source files

and assemble again.

For example, the KB9 Basic can be changed:

  • Character in//out to a serial device
  • Control-C handler update
  • Remove the ROR workaround
  • Save/load to another storage device
  • See the KIM Kenner articles for patches on KB9 Basic

An example is this post by Gordon Henderson who made a serial interfaced Commodore Basic by creating a new variant and tweaking some conditionals, replacing the screen editor with the line editing interface of older versions.

KB-9 stands for Microsoft Basic V1.1 for the KIM-1  with 9 digits precision. .
Scanned manual
The original KIM-1 KB9 Microsoft Basic V1.1, audio wave, binary and papertape format



A program, SerialTester,  a guide and test results.

Also updated Prolific PL2303HXA driver misery solution.


MC-65 AIM65 compatible

An AIM65 compatible 65C02 CPU based computer, the MC-65. With a 6532, 6522, terminal I/O, cassette interface, and in theory possible to run the original AIM 65 ROMs.

For AIM 65 ROMS and manuals, see the AIM 65 pages!


The Target

an AIM65 newsletter, A bimonthtly newsletter published by Don Clem

Thanks to scans made by David Colglazier I have a collection of this AIM 65 newsletter online now!

The Target

an AIM65 Newsletter

A bimonthtly newsletter published by Don Clem

Scans by David Colglazier

The Target julyaugust 1979
The Target January February 1980
The Target March April 1980
The Target May June1980
The Target July August 1980
The Target September October 1980
The Target November December 1980
The Target July-December 1981


Large update!

While I was working on my KIM-1 emulator, I did a lot of research in my own archive and the internet and found this website was not showing all I have offline.
So lots of updates, enhancements, scans, software, magazines added, before the programming continues on the emulator!
Read More


RB Specials

When I was an editor at Radio Bulletin we published several specials. Some were additions to the magazine, two specials were on sale.

RB CB Special 1980. The early KIM-1 articles by Dick de Boer.
RB CB special inhoud
De Keuze van een Personal Computer, Hans Otten
rbspecialmicrocomputers, D.M. de Boer
EPROM programmeerapparaat met de KIM, J.M. v.d. Peijl
Grafisch TV-display, D.M. de Boer
Mastermind op de KIM, J.M. v.d. Peijl
Morse-decodering met de KIM, M.B. Immerzaal
Programmeren, stap voor stap
Zero page shifter. D.M. de Boer
Automatische registeruitlezing, D.M. de Boer
CB Special 1982. KIM uitbreidingen Paul de Beer en Hans Otten.
Inhoud CB Special
EPROM programmeerapparaat PET en KIM, J.M. v.d. Peijl, P.G.J. de Beer
Geheugenuitbreiding voor 6502-systemen, H.J.C. Otten, P.G.J. de Beer
Mini-assembler voorde 6502, M. Dohmen, R. Koekoek
ASCII-toetsenbord UART-schakeling Baudrate generator, H.J.C. Otten
5V 20A Voeding voor microprocessorsystemen, Manudax
AMI-COS getest, overdruk Radio Bulletin Sepember 1980, H.J.C. Otten
De microprocessor van morgen, P.G.J. de Beer, H.J.C. Otten
uprofessioneel bijlage 1980, BEM Brutech

RM 65

Datasheets of all available RM 65modules are described in Chapter 9 of the 1984 Synertek Databook

User manuals of some RM modules:
Single Board Computer (SBC) Module User’s Guide
16K PROM ROM Module User’s Manual
32K Dynamic RAM Module User’s Guide
8K Static RAM User’s Manual
General Purpose Input Output and Timer Module Users Manual
Run-time BASIC User’s Manual

RM 65 32K Dynamic RAM module

RM 65 Floppy Disk Controller Module

Floppy Disk Controller Module User’s Manual
RM 65 Floppy disk Controller Module User’s manual

RM 65 CRT Controller

Configuration Guide Rockwell Modular Microcomputer Products

Software Preparation System Development Configurations

Photos from

Development System

RM 65 to AIM 65 Interface card

RM65 interface on AIM 65 expansion connector

Interface card between RM65 and AIM 65

General Purpose I/O Timer interface

Rear of General Purpose I/O Time interface card

RM65 top

Cage with cards

CRT Controller

FDC Controller

Rear of Floppy disk interface card

32K RAM Memory card

Rear of 32K RAM memory card