Kowalski assembler simulator

Michael Kowalski created the 6502 Simulator many years ago. It simulated the MOS 6502, CMOS 65C02, and the 6501. Daryl Rictor took the sources and updated with 65816 assembler and emulator support to 16MB memory. He also translated the Polish help to English in CHM format. It is a Windows 32 bit program and runs fine on Windows 10 64 bit.
The debugger/simulator is still only 65(C)02.

The latest version by Michal Kowalski is here.

How to install

  1. Download the latest version on the site of Daryl Rictor.
  2. Unpack the archive in a folder on your hard disk.
  3. Now ‘unblock’ the three files:

You can write code, assemble it, and run it with a debugger with breakpoints, step by step etcetera.

How to use

Entering the source code

Open a blank source file by clicking on (File / New)
Type in your assembly language program
Save it by doing (File / Save as). Use the suggested extension of .65s for your filename.

Assembling the source code

Assemble the source code by clicking on (Simulator / Assemble).
If there are any errors in your code, an error message should come up at this point.

Using the debugger

Turn on the debugger by clicking on (Simulator / Debugger), or press F6.

Go to the View menu and make the following windows visible:
– 6502 Registers
– 6502 Memory
– Identifiers

Find the assembled machine code in the Memory window. It should match up with the codes on the handout.
A better way of looking at the code is to open the Disassembler window ( View / Disassembler ) which shows you clearly which instructions produced which machine code bytes.
The identifiers window tells you which memory locations have been set aside for the variables that you declared at the bottom of your program. That is all it is for really, so once you have seen that, you can close it.

Running the program

To run the program you have various options, all listed on the Simulator menu. The most useful one from a teaching point of view is ( Simulator / Step Into) or F11.
Arrange your windows so that you can see the source code, the memory window, and the registers window ( and the Dissassembler window if you want) and use F11 to start to step through the code.
After each instruction, look at the state of the registers, and satisfy yourself that the instruction has done what you expected it to. Also, when you do a Store to Memory instruction, you should see the value pop up in the appropriate place in the memory window.
When you have finished running the program, click on (Simulator / Restart Program) before trying to run it again.

Undocumented directives

In the file parse6502.cpp in the subfolder CrystalEdit you can read some assemble directives and I/O ports not documented in the Help.

Some are not documented in the Help but are in the sourcefile crytaledit/Parse6502.cpp

.ASCII
Directives defining values of single bytes using passed arguments.

Syntax
[

Example
alpha: .DB \”ABC\”, 0 ; generates bytes ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, 0
beta: .DB %1, %1$ ; macro params; string length and string itself
.BYTE <[alpha-1], >[alpha-1]”
.ASCII \”Text\”

Description
.BYTE (.DB, .ASCII) directives generates and defines single byte values. Input data might be entered in numerical or string form. Numerical expressions are also accepted.

.ROM_AREA
Directive establishing memory protection area

Syntax
.ROM_AREA addr_from_expr, addr_to_expr

Example
.ROM_AREA $a000, $afff
.ROM_AREA Start, * ; from ‘Start’ to here

Description
.ROM_AREA turns on memory protection for a given range of addresses. Any attempt to write to this area will stop program execution. Write attempts to the EPROM usually indicate a bug and memory protection can facilitate locating such bugs. Specifying same start and end address turns protection off

.IO_WND
Directive setting terminal window size.

Syntax
.IO_WND cols_expr, rows_expr

Example
.IO_WND 40, 20; 40 columns, 20 rows

Description
.IO_WND directive sets size of terminal window. It requires two parameters: number of columns and rows.
Both columns and rows are limited to 1..255 range.

IO_AREA
Label representing beginning of simulator I/O area.

Syntax
IO_AREA = addr_expr ; set I/O area
IO_AREA ; use I/O area, default $E000

Example
IO_CLS = IO_AREA + 0 ; clear window port
STA IO_AREA+1 ; put char

Description
IO_AREA label represents beginning of simulator I/O area. Simulator can detect read and write attempts
from/to its I/O area.
Starting from IO_AREA address consecutive bytes are treated as virtual ports.”

Following ports are defined:
IO_AREA+0: TERMINAL_CLS (w)
IO_AREA+1: TERMINAL_OUT (w)
IO_AREA+2: TERMINAL_OUT_CHR (w)
IO_AREA+3: TERMINAL_OUT_HEX (w)
IO_AREA+4: TERMINAL_IN (r)
IO_AREA+5: TERMINAL_X_POS (r/w)
IO_AREA+6: TERMINAL_Y_POS (r/w)

(w) means write only port, (r) read only, (r/w) read/write.
TERMINAL_CLS – clear terminal window, set cursor at (0,0) position
TERMINAL_OUT – output single character interpreting control characters.
Terminal can only recognize those characters:
– $d char (caret) moving cursor to the beginning of line,
– $a char (line feed) moving cursor to the next line and scrolling window if necessary,
– 8 char (backspace) moving one position to the left and erasing char below cursor.
TERMINAL_OUT_CHR – outputs single character; control chars are being output just like regular characters.
TERMINAL_OUT_HEX – outputs single byte as a two-digit hexadecimal number.
TERMINAL_IN – input single byte, returns 0 if there’s no characters available in terminal’s buffer
– when I/O terminal window is active it can accept keyboard input;
– press Ins key to paste clipboard’s contents into terminal.
TERMINAL_X_POS – cursor X position (column).
TERMINAL_Y_POS – cursor Y position (row).

The Kowalski simulator includes a primitive I/O console, which is memory-mapped at a location declared with the IO_AREA pseudo-op. For example, IO_AREA=$D000 will map the console in at $D000.

From the sample archive (download archive here)

; Wait for input test

; IO area of the simulator has to be set at the address $e000
; (Option/Simulator/InOut memory area)
; In/Out Window will only accept input when it has focus (is active)

	*= $0600

io_area	= $e000
io_cls	= io_area + 0	; clear terminal window
io_putc	= io_area + 1	; put char
io_putr	= io_area + 2	; put raw char (doesn't interpret CR/LF)
io_puth	= io_area + 3	; put as hex number
io_getc	= io_area + 4	; get char

	LDA #$a
	STA io_putc	; this will move cursor to the next line
	STA io_putr	; this will print character

	LDA #'>'
	STA io_putc
.wait
	LDA io_getc
	BEQ .wait
	STA io_puth
	JMP .wait

	BRK

Simulator

Compared to 6502 and 65C02 microprocessors, the simulator is characterized by the following different components:

  • There is no relationship between the speed of different opcodes.
  • Illegal codes in 6502 mode are not executed, but cause the program to stop.
  • Illegal codes in 65C02 mode are treated as NOP statements and do not cause the program to stop.
  • BRK, RTS, and $DB are privileged because one of them, depending on the settings, ends the program.
  • Reserved bits in the Status register (P) are always set to 1 (as in 65C02, but not in 6502).

With the simulator you can run a program assembled from the built-in editor. Or you can load an Intel Hex file, a Motorola S-record file or a binary file. The type is determined by the extension, so you may have to rename your hex files. The simulator makes all memory available, only the IO_AREA is special.
Several Windows Can be opened during a debug session: Processor Status and registers, Memory, Disassembly, Text Input/output, Stack, ZeroPage, Identifiers (from assembled symbol table)

Example code

A good example of a Kowalski program is the source of Lee Davison’a EhBasic Minimal Monitor


; minimal monitor for EhBASIC and 6502 simulator V1.05

; To run EhBASIC on the simulator load and assemble [F7] this file, start the simulator
; running [F6] then start the code with the RESET [CTRL][SHIFT]R. Just selecting RUN
; will do nothing, you'll still have to do a reset to run the code.

	.include "basic.asm"

; put the IRQ and MNI code in RAM so that it can be changed

IRQ_vec	= VEC_SV+2		; IRQ code vector
NMI_vec	= IRQ_vec+$0A	; NMI code vector

; setup for the 6502 simulator environment

IO_AREA	= $F000		; set I/O area for this monitor

ACIAsimwr	= IO_AREA+$01	; simulated ACIA write port
ACIAsimrd	= IO_AREA+$04	; simulated ACIA read port

; now the code. all this does is set up the vectors and interrupt code
; and wait for the user to select [C]old or [W]arm start. nothing else
; fits in less than 128 bytes

	*=	$FF80			; pretend this is in a 1/8K ROM

; reset vector points here

RES_vec
	CLD				; clear decimal mode
	LDX	#$FF			; empty stack
	TXS				; set the stack

; set up vectors and interrupt code, copy them to page 2

	LDY	#END_CODE-LAB_vec	; set index/count
LAB_stlp
	LDA	LAB_vec-1,Y		; get byte from interrupt code
	STA	VEC_IN-1,Y		; save to RAM
	DEY				; decrement index/count
	BNE	LAB_stlp		; loop if more to do

; now do the signon message, Y = $00 here

LAB_signon
	LDA	LAB_mess,Y		; get byte from sign on message
	BEQ	LAB_nokey		; exit loop if done

	JSR	V_OUTP		; output character
	INY				; increment index
	BNE	LAB_signon		; loop, branch always

LAB_nokey
	JSR	V_INPT		; call scan input device
	BCC	LAB_nokey		; loop if no key

	AND	#$DF			; mask xx0x xxxx, ensure upper case
	CMP	#'W'			; compare with [W]arm start
	BEQ	LAB_dowarm		; branch if [W]arm start

	CMP	#'C'			; compare with [C]old start
	BNE	RES_vec		; loop if not [C]old start

	JMP	LAB_COLD		; do EhBASIC cold start

LAB_dowarm
	JMP	LAB_WARM		; do EhBASIC warm start

; byte out to simulated ACIA

ACIAout
	STA	ACIAsimwr		; save byte to simulated ACIA
	RTS

; byte in from simulated ACIA

ACIAin
	LDA	ACIAsimrd		; get byte from simulated ACIA
	BEQ	LAB_nobyw		; branch if no byte waiting

	SEC				; flag byte received
	RTS

LAB_nobyw
	CLC				; flag no byte received
no_load				; empty load vector for EhBASIC
no_save				; empty save vector for EhBASIC
	RTS

; vector tables

LAB_vec
	.word	ACIAin		; byte in from simulated ACIA
	.word	ACIAout		; byte out to simulated ACIA
	.word	no_load		; null load vector for EhBASIC
	.word	no_save		; null save vector for EhBASIC

; EhBASIC IRQ support

IRQ_CODE
	PHA				; save A
	LDA	IrqBase		; get the IRQ flag byte
	LSR				; shift the set b7 to b6, and on down ...
	ORA	IrqBase		; OR the original back in
	STA	IrqBase		; save the new IRQ flag byte
	PLA				; restore A
	RTI

; EhBASIC NMI support

NMI_CODE
	PHA				; save A
	LDA	NmiBase		; get the NMI flag byte
	LSR				; shift the set b7 to b6, and on down ...
	ORA	NmiBase		; OR the original back in
	STA	NmiBase		; save the new NMI flag byte
	PLA				; restore A
	RTI

END_CODE

LAB_mess
	.byte	$0D,$0A,"6502 EhBASIC [C]old/[W]arm ?",$00
					; sign on string

; system vectors

	*=	$FFFA

	.word	NMI_vec		; NMI vector
	.word	RES_vec		; RESET vector
	.word	IRQ_vec		; IRQ vector


KOWALSKI ASSEMBLER LOGICAL, BITWISE & ARITHMETIC OPERATORS

   .opt proc65c02,caseinsensitive
;KOWALSKI ASSEMBLER LOGICAL, BITWISE & ARITHMETIC OPERATORS
;
;
;   number radices...
;
;       @     binary, e.g., @01011010
;       $     hex, e.g., $5a
;       none  decimal
;
test0001 =@00001111
test0002 =test0001 << 4        ;logical shift left 4 bits
test0003 =test0002 >> 4        ;logical shift right 4 bits
test0004 =test0001 & test0002  ;bitwise AND
test0005 =test0001 | test0002  ;bitwise OR
test0006 =test0001 && test0002 ;logical AND
test0007 =test0001 || test0002 ;logical OR
test0008 =!0                   ;bitwise NOT
test0009 =$5a ^ test0005       ;bitwise XOR
test0010 =4 == 3               ;equality test
test0011 =4 == 4               ;equality test
test0012 =4 != 3               ;inequality test
test0013 =4 != 4               ;inequality test
test0014 =4 > 3                ;greater-than test
test0015 =4 < 3                ;lesser-than test
test0016 =~1                   ;2s complement
;
;
;   arithmetic operators...
;
;       +   addition
;       -   subtraction
;       *   multiplication
;       /   division
;       %   modulo
;
sum      = 5   + 6             ;evaluates to 11
diff     = sum - 6             ;evaluates to 5
prod     = 5   * 6             ;evaluates to 30
quot     =prod / diff          ;evaluates to 6
mod      =prod % sum           ;evaluates to 8
;
;
;   example using square brackets to alter evaluation precedence...
;
test0017 =5 + 6 * 2            ;strictly left-to-right: evaluates to 17
test0018 =[5 + 6] * 2          ;sum of 5 & 6 computed 1st: evaluates to 22
;
   .end

Assembler test, all opcodes 65C02

;	.title	6500 Assembler Test

dir	.=	$0033
ext	.=	$1122
offset	.=	$0044
	
extext	.= 0
extdir	.= 0

r65f11	.= 1
r65c00	.= 1
r65c02	.= 1

	.OPT Proc65c02
;
; All documented 650X, 651X, 65F11, 65F12, 65C00/21, 65C29,
; 65C02, 65C102, and 65C112 instructions with proper AS6500 syntax.
;
	.org $1000

	adc #12		;69 12
			;---
	adc 1234	;6D 34 12
	adc ext		;6D 22 11
	adc extext	;6Du00v00
			;---
	adc 12		;65 12
	adc  dir	;65 33
	adc  extext	;65 00
			;---
	adc 12,x	;75 12
	adc  dir,x	;75 33
	adc offset,x	;75 44
	adc  extdir,x	;75 00
			;---
	adc 1234,x	;7D 34 12
	adc ext,x	;7D 22 11
	adc extext,x	;7Du00v00
			;---
	adc 1234,y	;79 34 12
	adc  dir,y	;79 33 00
	adc  extdir,y	;79u00v00
	adc ext,y	;79 22 11
	adc extext,y	;79u00v00
			;---
	adc (12,x)	;61 12
	adc ( dir,x)	;61 33
	adc (offset,x)	;61 44
	adc ( extdir,x)	;61 00
	adc (extext,x)	;61 00
			;---
	adc (12),y	;71 12
	adc ( dir),y	;71 33
	adc (offset),y	;71 44
	adc ( extdir),y	;71 00
	adc (extext),y	;71 00
			;---
	.if r65c02
	adc (12)	;72 12
	adc ( dir)	;72 33
	adc (offset)	;72 44
	adc ( extdir)	;72 00
	adc (extext)	;72 00
	.endif

	and #12		;29 12
			;---
	and 1234	;2D 34 12
	and ext		;2D 22 11
	and extext	;2Du00v00
			;---
	and 12		;25 12
	and  dir	;25 33
	and  extext	;25 00
			;---
	and 12,x	;35 12
	and  dir,x	;35 33
	and offset,x	;35 44
	and  extdir,x	;35 00
			;---
	and 1234,x	;3D 34 12
	and ext,x	;3D 22 11
	and extext,x	;3Du00v00
			;---
	and 1234,y	;39 34 12
	and  dir,y	;39 33 00
	and  extdir,y	;39u00v00
	and ext,y	;39 22 11
	and extext,y	;39u00v00
			;---
	and (12,x)	;21 12
	and ( dir,x)	;21 33
	and (offset,x)	;21 44
	and ( extdir,x)	;21 00
	and (extext,x)	;21 00
			;---
	and (12),y	;31 12
	and ( dir),y	;31 33
	and (offset),y	;31 44
	and ( extdir),y	;31 00
	and (extext),y	;31 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	and (12)	;32 12
	and ( dir)	;32 33
	and (offset)	;32 44
	and ( extdir)	;32 00
	and (extext)	;32 00
	.endif

;	asl a		;0A
	asl		;0A
			;---
	asl 1234	;0E 34 12
	asl ext		;0E 22 11
	asl extext	;0Eu00v00
			;---
	asl 12		;06 12
	asl  dir	;06 33
	asl  extext	;06 00
			;---
	asl 12,x	;16 12
	asl  dir,x	;16 33
	asl offset,x	;16 44
	asl  extdir,x	;16 00
			;---
	asl 1234,x	;1E 34 12
	asl ext,x	;1E 22 11
	asl extext,x	;1Eu00v00

	.if	r65f11+r65c00+r65c02
	bbr#0,12,*	;0F 12 FD
	bbr#1, 12,*	;1F 12 FD
	bbr#2, 12,*	;2F 12 FD
	bbr#3, 12,*	;3F 12 FD
	bbr#4, 12,*	;4F 12 FD
	bbr#5, 12,*	;5F 12 FD
	bbr#6, 12,*	;6F 12 FD
	bbr#7, 12,*	;7F 12 FD

	bbs#0, 12,*	;8F 12 FD
	bbs#1, 12,*	;9F 12 FD
	bbs#2, 12,*	;AF 12 FD
	bbs#3, 12,*	;BF 12 FD
	bbs#4, 12,*	;CF 12 FD
	bbs#5, 12,*	;DF 12 FD
	bbs#6, 12,*	;EF 12 FD
	bbs#7, 12,*	;FF 12 FD

.1:	bbr #0, 12,.3	;0F 12 03
.2:	bbr #0,  dir,.2	;0F 33 FD
.3:	bbr #0,  extext,.1	;0F 00 F7

.4:	bbs #0, 12,.6	;8F 12 03
.5:	bbs #0,  dir,.5	;8F 33 FD
.6:	bbs #0,  extext,.4	;8F 00 F7
	.endif

	bcc *		;90 FE

	bcs *		;B0 FE

	beq *		;F0 FE

	.if	r65c02
	bit #12		;89 12
	.endif
			;---
	bit 1234	;2C 34 12
	bit ext		;2C 22 11
	bit extext	;2Cu00v00
			;---
	bit 12		;24 12
	bit  dir	;24 33
	bit  extext	;24 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	bit 12,x	;34 12
	bit  dir,x	;34 33
	bit offset,x	;34 44
	bit  extdir,x	;34 00
			;---
	bit 1234,x	;3C 34 12
	bit ext,x	;3C 22 11
	bit extext,x	;3Cu00v00
	.endif

	bmi *		;30 FE

	bne *		;D0 FE

	bpl *		;10 FE

	.if	r65c00+r65c02
	bra *		;80 FE
	.endif

	brk		;00

	bvc *		;50 FE

	bvs *		;70 FE

	clc		;18

	cld		;D8

	cli		;58

	clv		;B8

	cmp #12		;C9 12
			;---
	cmp 1234	;CD 34 12
	cmp ext		;CD 22 11
	cmp extext	;CDu00v00
			;---
	cmp 12		;C5 12
	cmp  dir	;C5 33
	cmp  extext	;C5 00
			;---
	cmp 12,x	;D5 12
	cmp  dir,x	;D5 33
	cmp offset,x	;D5 44
	cmp  extdir,x	;D5 00
			;---
	cmp 1234,x	;DD 34 12
	cmp ext,x	;DD 22 11
	cmp extext,x	;DDu00v00
			;---
	cmp 1234,y	;D9 34 12
	cmp  dir,y	;D9 33 00
	cmp  extdir,y	;D9u00v00
	cmp ext,y	;D9 22 11
	cmp extext,y	;D9u00v00
			;---
	cmp (12,x)	;C1 12
	cmp ( dir,x)	;C1 33
	cmp (offset,x)	;C1 44
	cmp ( extdir,x)	;C1 00
	cmp (extext,x)	;C1 00
			;---
	cmp (12),y	;D1 12
	cmp ( dir),y	;D1 33
	cmp (offset),y	;D1 44
	cmp ( extdir),y	;D1 00
	cmp (extext),y	;D1 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	cmp (12)	;D2 12
	cmp ( dir)	;D2 33
	cmp (offset)	;D2 44
	cmp ( extdir)	;D2 00
	cmp (extext)	;D2 00
	.endif

	.if	r65c02
	cpx #12		;E0 12
	.endif
			;---
	cpx 12		;E4 12
	cpx  dir	;E4 33
	cpx  extdir	;E4 00
			;---
	cpx 1234	;EC 34 12
	cpx ext		;EC 22 11
	cpx extext	;ECu00v00

	.if	r65c02
	cpy #12		;C0 12
	.endif
			;---
	cpy 12		;C4 12
	cpy  dir	;C4 33
	cpy  extdir	;C4 00
			;---
	cpy 1234	;CC 34 12
	cpy ext		;CC 22 11
	cpy extext	;CCu00v00

	.if	r65c02
;	dec a		;3A
	dea		;3A
	.endif
			;---
	dec 1234	;CE 34 12
	dec ext		;CE 22 11
	dec extext	;CEu00v00
			;---
	dec 12		;C6 12
	dec  dir	;C6 33
	dec  extext	;C6 00
			;---
	dec 12,x	;D6 12
	dec  dir,x	;D6 33
	dec offset,x	;D6 44
	dec  extdir,x	;D6 00
			;---
	dec 1234,x	;DE 34 12
	dec ext,x	;DE 22 11
	dec extext,x	;DEu00v00

	dex		;CA

	dey		;88

	eor #12		;49 12
			;---
	eor 1234	;4D 34 12
	eor ext		;4D 22 11
	eor extext	;4Du00v00
			;---
	eor 12		;45 12
	eor  dir	;45 33
	eor  extext	;45 00
			;---
	eor 12,x	;55 12
	eor  dir,x	;55 33
	eor offset,x	;55 44
	eor  extdir,x	;55 00
			;---
	eor 1234,x	;5D 34 12
	eor ext,x	;5D 22 11
	eor extext,x	;5Du00v00
			;---
	eor 1234,y	;59 34 12
	eor  dir,y	;59 33 00
	eor  extdir,y	;59u00v00
	eor ext,y	;59 22 11
	eor extext,y	;59u00v00
			;---
	eor (12,x)	;41 12
	eor ( dir,x)	;41 33
	eor (offset,x)	;41 44
	eor ( extdir,x)	;41 00
	eor (extext,x)	;41 00
			;---
	eor (12),y	;51 12
	eor ( dir),y	;51 33
	eor (offset),y	;51 44
	eor ( extdir),y	;51 00
	eor (extext),y	;51 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	eor (12)	;52 12
	eor ( dir)	;52 33
	eor (offset)	;52 44
	eor ( extdir)	;52 00
	eor (extext)	;52 00
	.endif

	.if	r65c02
;	inc a		;1A
	ina		;1A
	.endif
			;---
	inc 1234	;EE 34 12
	inc ext		;EE 22 11
	inc extext	;EEu00v00
			;---
	inc 12		;E6 12
	inc  dir	;E6 33
	inc  extext	;E6 00
			;---
	inc 12,x	;F6 12
	inc  dir,x	;F6 33
	inc offset,x	;F6 44
	inc  extdir,x	;F6 00
			;---
	inc 1234,x	;FE 34 12
	inc ext,x	;FE 22 11
	inc extext,x	;FEu00v00

	inx		;E8

	iny		;C8

	jmp 12		;4C 12 00
	jmp  dir	;4C 33 00
	jmp  extext	;4Cu00v00
			;---
	jmp 1234	;4C 34 12
	jmp ext		;4C 22 11
	jmp extext	;4Cu00v00
			;---
	jmp (1234)	;6C 34 12
	jmp (ext)	;6C 22 11
	jmp (extext)	;6Cu00v00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	jmp (1234,x)	;7C 34 12
	jmp (ext,x)	;7C 22 11
;	jmp (extext,x)	;7Cu00v00
	.endif

	jsr  dir	;20 33 00
	jsr  extdir	;20u00v00
			;---
	jsr 1234	;20 34 12
	jsr ext		;20 22 11
	jsr extext	;20u00v00

	lda #12		;A9 12
			;---
	lda 1234	;AD 34 12
	lda ext		;AD 22 11
	lda extext	;ADu00v00
			;---
	lda 12		;A5 12
	lda  dir	;A5 33
	lda  extext	;A5 00
			;---
	lda 12,x	;B5 12
	lda  dir,x	;B5 33
	lda offset,x	;B5 44
	lda  extdir,x	;B5 00
			;---
	lda 1234,x	;BD 34 12
	lda ext,x	;BD 22 11
	lda extext,x	;BDu00v00
			;---
	lda 1234,y	;B9 34 12
	lda  dir,y	;B9 33 00
	lda  extdir,y	;B9u00v00
	lda ext,y	;B9 22 11
	lda extext,y	;B9u00v00
			;---
	lda (12,x)	;A1 12
	lda ( dir,x)	;A1 33
	lda (offset,x)	;A1 44
	lda ( extdir,x)	;A1 00
	lda (extext,x)	;A1 00
			;---
	lda (12),y	;B1 12
	lda ( dir),y	;B1 33
	lda (offset),y	;B1 44
	lda ( extdir),y	;B1 00
	lda (extext),y	;B1 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	lda (12)	;B2 12
	lda ( dir)	;B2 33
	lda (offset)	;B2 44
	lda ( extdir)	;B2 00
	lda (extext)	;B2 00
	.endif

	ldx #12		;A2 12
			;---
	ldx 12		;A6 12
	ldx  dir	;A6 33
	ldx  extdir	;A6 00
			;---
	ldx 12,y	;B6 12
	ldx  dir,y	;B6 33
	ldx  extdir,y	;B6 00
			;---
	ldx 1234	;AE 34 12
	ldx ext		;AE 22 11
	ldx extext	;AEu00v00
			;---
	ldx 1234,y	;BE 34 12
	ldx ext,y	;BE 22 11
	ldx extext,y	;BEu00v00

	ldy #12		;A0 12
			;---
	ldy 12		;A4 12
	ldy  dir	;A4 33
	ldy  extdir	;A4 00
			;---
	ldy 12,x	;B4 12
	ldy  dir,x	;B4 33
	ldy  extdir,x	;B4 00
			;---
	ldy 1234	;AC 34 12
	ldy ext		;AC 22 11
	ldy extext	;ACu00v00
			;---
	ldy 1234,x	;BC 34 12
	ldy ext,x	;BC 22 11
	ldy extext,x	;BCu00v00

;	lsr a		;4A
	lsr		;4A
			;---
	lsr 1234	;4E 34 12
	lsr ext		;4E 22 11
	lsr extext	;4Eu00v00
			;---
	lsr 12		;46 12
	lsr  dir	;46 33
	lsr  extext	;46 00
			;---
	lsr 12,x	;56 12
	lsr  dir,x	;56 33
	lsr offset,x	;56 44
	lsr  extdir,x	;56 00
			;---
	lsr 1234,x	;5E 34 12
	lsr ext,x	;5E 22 11
	lsr extext,x	;5Eu00v00

	.if	r65c00
;	mul		;02
	.endif

	nop		;EA

	ora #12		;09 12
			;---
	ora 1234	;0D 34 12
	ora ext		;0D 22 11
	ora extext	;0Du00v00
			;---
	ora 12		;05 12
	ora  dir	;05 33
	ora  extext	;05 00
			;---
	ora 12,x	;15 12
	ora  dir,x	;15 33
	ora offset,x	;15 44
	ora  extdir,x	;15 00
			;---
	ora 1234,x	;1D 34 12
	ora ext,x	;1D 22 11
	ora extext,x	;1Du00v00
			;---
	ora 1234,y	;19 34 12
	ora  dir,y	;19 33 00
	ora  extdir,y	;19u00v00
	ora ext,y	;19 22 11
	ora extext,y	;19u00v00
			;---
	ora (12,x)	;01 12
	ora ( dir,x)	;01 33
	ora (offset,x)	;01 44
	ora ( extdir,x)	;01 00
	ora (extext,x)	;01 00
			;---
	ora (12),y	;11 12
	ora ( dir),y	;11 33
	ora (offset),y	;11 44
	ora ( extdir),y	;11 00
	ora (extext),y	;11 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	ora (12)	;12 12
	ora ( dir)	;12 33
	ora (offset)	;12 44
	ora ( extdir)	;12 00
	ora (extext)	;12 00
	.endif

	pha		;48

	php		;08

	.if	r65c00+r65c02
	phx		;DA

	phy		;5A
	.endif

	pla		;68

	plp		;28

	.if	r65c00+r65c02
	plx		;FA

	ply		;7A
	.endif

	.if	r65f11+r65c00+r65c02
	rmb #0, 12		;07 12
	rmb #1, 12		;17 12
	rmb #2, 12		;27 12
	rmb #3, 12		;37 12
	rmb #4, 12		;47 12
	rmb #5, 12		;57 12
	rmb #6, 12		;67 12
	rmb #7, 12		;77 12

	rmb #0,  dir	;07 33
	rmb #0,  extdir	;07 00
	.endif

	.if	r65c02
;	rol a		;2A
	rol		;2A
	.endif
			;---
	rol 1234	;2E 34 12
	rol ext		;2E 22 11
	rol extext	;2Eu00v00
			;---
	rol 12		;26 12
	rol  dir	;26 33
	rol  extext	;26 00
			;---
	rol 12,x	;36 12
	rol  dir,x	;36 33
	rol offset,x	;36 44
	rol  extdir,x	;36 00
			;---
	rol 1234,x	;3E 34 12
	rol ext,x	;3E 22 11
	rol extext,x	;3Eu00v00

;	ror a		;6A
	ror		;6A
			;---
	ror 1234	;6E 34 12
	ror ext		;6E 22 11
	ror extext	;6Eu00v00
			;---
	ror 12		;66 12
	ror  dir	;66 33
	ror  extext	;66 00
			;---
	ror 12,x	;76 12
	ror  dir,x	;76 33
	ror offset,x	;76 44
	ror  extdir,x	;76 00
			;---
	ror 1234,x	;7E 34 12
	ror ext,x	;7E 22 11
	ror extext,x	;7Eu00v00

	rti		;40

	rts		;60

	sbc #12		;E9 12
			;---
	sbc 1234	;ED 34 12
	sbc ext		;ED 22 11
	sbc extext	;EDu00v00
			;---
	sbc 12		;E5 12
	sbc  dir	;E5 33
	sbc  extext	;E5 00
			;---
	sbc 12,x	;F5 12
	sbc  dir,x	;F5 33
	sbc offset,x	;F5 44
	sbc  extdir,x	;F5 00
			;---
	sbc 1234,x	;FD 34 12
	sbc ext,x	;FD 22 11
	sbc extext,x	;FDu00v00
			;---
	sbc 1234,y	;F9 34 12
	sbc  dir,y	;F9 33 00
	sbc  extdir,y	;F9u00v00
	sbc ext,y	;F9 22 11
	sbc extext,y	;F9u00v00
			;---
	sbc (12,x)	;E1 12
	sbc ( dir,x)	;E1 33
	sbc (offset,x)	;E1 44
	sbc ( extdir,x)	;E1 00
	sbc (extext,x)	;E1 00
			;---
	sbc (12),y	;F1 12
	sbc ( dir),y	;F1 33
	sbc (offset),y	;F1 44
	sbc ( extdir),y	;F1 00
	sbc (extext),y	;F1 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	sbc (12)	;F2 12
	sbc ( dir)	;F2 33
	sbc (offset)	;F2 44
	sbc ( extdir)	;F2 00
	sbc (extext)	;F2 00
	.endif

	sec		;38

	sed		;F8

	sei		;78

	.if	r65f11+r65c00+r65c02
	smb#0, 12		;87 12
	smb#1, 12		;97 12
	smb#2, 12		;A7 12
	smb#3, 12		;B7 12
	smb#4, 12		;C7 12
	smb#5, 12		;D7 12
	smb#6, 12		;E7 12
	smb#7, 12		;F7 12

	smb#0,  dir	;87 33
	smb#0,  extdir	;87 00
	.endif

	;sta #12	;89 12
			;---
	sta 1234	;8D 34 12
	sta ext		;8D 22 11
	sta extext	;8Du00v00
			;---
	sta 12		;85 12
	sta  dir	;85 33
	sta  extext	;85 00
			;---
	sta 12,x	;95 12
	sta  dir,x	;95 33
	sta offset,x	;95 44
	sta  extdir,x	;95 00
			;---
	sta 1234,x	;9D 34 12
	sta ext,x	;9D 22 11
	sta extext,x	;9Du00v00
			;---
	sta 1234,y	;99 34 12
	sta  dir,y	;99 33 00
	sta  extdir,y	;99u00v00
	sta ext,y	;99 22 11
	sta extext,y	;99u00v00
			;---
	sta (12,x)	;81 12
	sta ( dir,x)	;81 33
	sta (offset,x)	;81 44
	sta ( extdir,x)	;81 00
	sta (extext,x)	;81 00
			;---
	sta (12),y	;91 12
	sta ( dir),y	;91 33
	sta (offset),y	;91 44
	sta ( extdir),y	;91 00
	sta (extext),y	;91 00
			;---
	.if	r65c02
	sta (12)	;92 12
	sta ( dir)	;92 33
	sta (offset)	;92 44
	sta ( extdir)	;92 00
	sta (extext)	;92 00
	.endif

	stx 12		;86 12
	stx  dir	;86 33
	stx  extdir	;86 0
			;---
	stx 1234	;8E 34 12
	stx ext		;8E 22 11
	stx extext	;8Eu00v00
			;---
	stx 12,y	;96 12
	stx  dir,y	;96 33
	stx  extdir,y	;96 00

	sty 12		;84 12
	sty  dir	;84 33
	sty  extdir	;84 0
			;---
	sty 1234	;8C 34 12
	sty ext		;8C 22 11
	sty extext	;8Cu00v00
			;---
	sty 12,x	;94 12
	sty  dir,x	;94 33
	sty  extdir,x	;94 00

	.if	r65c02
	stz 12		;64 12
	stz  dir	;64 33
	stz  extdir	;64 00
			;---
	stz 1234	;9C 34 12
	stz ext		;9C 22 11
	stz extext	;9Cu00v00
			;---
	stz 12,x	;74 12
	stz  dir,x	;74 33
	stz  extdir,x	;74 00
			;---
	stz 1234,x	;9E 34 12
	stz ext,x	;9E 22 11
	stz extext,x	;9Eu00v00
	.endif

	tax		;AA

	tay		;A8

	.if	r65c02
	trb 1234	;1C 34 12
	trb ext		;1C 22 11
	trb extext	;1Cu00v00
			;---
	trb 12		;14 12
	trb  dir	;14 33
	trb  extdir	;14 00

	tsb 1234	;0C 34 12
	tsb ext		;0C 22 11
	tsb extext	;0Cu00v00
			;---
	tsb 12		;04 12
	tsb  dir	;04 33
	tsb  extdir	;04 00
	.endif

	tsx		;BA

	txa		;8A

	txs		;9A

	tya		;98