AIM 65 clone updates

Mr Nagano published videos and photos of an early prototype of his AIM 65 clone.


User wikokim on the bought this system in 1978/79. He published documents and ROM dumps.

See here for this ‘KIM-1’ like system.



User wikokim on the bought this system in 1978/79. And published the following documents and ROM dumps.

The ESCO 1 was DM 520, the ESCO Monitor DM 460 (German Marks). The backplane was DM 190. He added a 16KB Static Memory Card from KF (?) and modified the Card to work with the ESCO Bus. He also made a LED based Bus Monitor including the KIM-1 based Single Cycle /Single Step Logic.

ESCO stands for Europa Single Board Computer.
The ESCO system was desigend and sold by the firm Neumüller. The firm still exist, though they remember nothing about the ESCO.

The ESCO SBC has:

  • 4 SRAMS TMS4045 makes 2K RAM
  • several address decoders, including 145 like the KIM-1
  • A 4MHz crystal, divided to 2 MHz or less MHz.Since the 6502 is the 1 MHz NMOS part, likely 1 MHz
  • the 6820 is a PIA, the empty slot is for a second PIA
  • 4 IC sockets for2516 EPROMS, here with monitor and an Editor/Assembler

The optional ESCO monitor, consisting of a EuroCard and a separate keyboard PCB, with the usual hex keybaord, 6 seven segment LED displays, audio cassette interface, and a serial 20 mA TTY interface.

Texteditor and Assembler in action. Started Texteditor with “Q” (home made ESCO Monitor extension q $8000). Then “T” to start Texteditor. “TEXT:” entered 2000 (start of texteditor Storage Area). “N Or O” for new or old Text. Entered “O” , “2000 2038 0005” Text Start @2000 to 2038 5 Lines entered . “A T” Starts Assembler 1 Pass to Terminal (SYMS, SYME, Code left default) . “D” Starts pass 2 to terminal.

Available documents and ROM dumps:

Brochure ESCO and ESCO Monitor
ESCO Assembler Editor.pdf
ESCO-1 Monitor
ESCO Assembler editor part 1 E000
ESCO Assembler editor part 2 E800
ESCO Assembler editor part 3 F000
ESCO Assembler editor combined in 6K ROM image

KIM-4 photos

I received photos from Joseph Avins of a KIM-4 motherboard connected to a KIM-1.

Added tot the KIM-1 hardware pages, read more here.

KIM-4 (photo by Joseph Avins)

KIM-4 (photo by Joseph Avins)

RSC-Forth computers

The R6501Q and R65F11 IC’s I acquired are Rockwell parts for single chip computer systems. Well, they contain a lot more than a 6502, like ROM, RAM, I/O.

A couple of pages devoted to these IC’s and RCS-Forth, the Rockwell Single Chip FORTH system are here.



This page is about the operation and use of the Rockwell Single-Chip RSC-FORTH system as implemented in the Rockwell R65F11 (40-pin) and R65F12 (64-pin) FORTH-based one-chip Microcomputers and in the Rockwell R65FR1 FORTH Development ROM. Also about the the RSC Forth ROMS as available for the R6501Q IC.

RSC-FORTH ROMs datasheet 1984
RSC-FORTH ROMs datasheet 1987
R65FRx and R65FKx RSC Forth Development and Kernel Roms
RSC-Forth User Manual R65FR1 BW
RSC-FORTH User Manual R65FR1

R65FR1.bin — Forth kernel V1.7 for 65RF11
R65FK2P.BIN — Small FORTH kernel for R6501Q
R65FR2P.BIN — FORTH development ROM, pairs with R65FK2P
R65FK3P.BIN– Large FORTH kernel for R6501Q
R65FR3P.BIN– FORTH development ROM, pairs with R65FK3P
R32TH-12 R65FK3P1.7 RSC-Forth Kernel
R65FK3 im 2764


RSC-Forth R56F11 R6501Q

Rockwell made many 6502 variants. Some were ‘SOCs’, complete computers in an IC.
and Rockwell was strong in Forth, e.g. RSC-Forth products

The Databooks (e.g. 1984 and 1987 Data products) contain many examples of these lines.

In my collection I have two:

  • R6501Q one IC R6501AQ and one R6501Q in the Glitchworks R6501Q kit
  • R65F11 one IC, a ‘Forth’ computer

Here you find information on:

Elektor Junior VIA 6522 German

Found in my archive: the German version of the Elektor Junior VIA 6522 book.

Added tot the Elektor books page.


R6501Q kit

I have two R6501 IC’s. One came with the Glitchworks GW-R65X1QSBC-1 kit, a R6501Q. The other from ebay, a R6501AQ (A for 2MHz).
The Rockwell R6501 is a NMOS-3 microcomputer on a chip. It has an enhanced 6502 CPU, 192 bytes RAM, and a VIA interface (2 16 bit counters, 32 I/O lines a serial port, 10 interrupts.

The 6502 has RMB and SMB BBS and BBR instructions added. I/O in zero page (00-1F, Stack in zeropage (040-FF). See the datasheets for more information.

R6501Q One Chip Microprozessor Rockwell datasheet
R6501Q datasheet 1984
R6501 R6511 datasheet 1987
Glitchworks GW-R65X1QSBC-1 kit manual

Glitchworks GW-R65X1QSBC-1

I am building the Glitchworks GW-R65X1QSBC-1, a SBC around the 6501Q.

The Glitch Works R6501Q/R6511Q Single Board Computer (SBC) is designed to support Rockwell’s single-chip microcomputer processors in QUIP-64 (double zig-zag) packages. These processors contain an enhanced 6502 processor core, 192 bytes of onboard static RAM, hardware serial communications channel, up to 32 bits of parallel I/O, and two counter/timer modules.

The R65X1Q SBC is designed to work with the Rockwell R6501Q, R6511Q, R6501AQ, or R6511AQ. The SBC provides the following features:

  • 32 KB static RAM, compatible with Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM)
  • 32 KB ROM, EEPROM, or FeRAM in 4K pages, in-board programmable
  • Serial console via onboard UART
  • ROM paging and switch-out
  • Debounced reset and power supply supervisory circuit
  • Glitchbus expansion header
  • Glitchbus I/O mapped as a 256 byte memory page at 0xEF00

A full assembly and user’s manual, including schematics, is available as a PDF download. Additionally, full parts kits and assembled units include a customized and enhanced version of Steve Wozniak’s 6502 ROM monitor (link to sources provided below).

The default software load includes a 32K ROMFS image with:

  • eWoz 1.2 for Glitch Works R65X1Q SBC
  • Tiny BASIC customized for Rockwell R65X1Q
  • Rockwell RSC-FORTH 1.7 configuration 2
  • A modified version of the Ohio Scientific memory test

Updates to default ROMFS software loads are provided as a hex loadable file which allows in-system updates of the EEPROM, removing the need for an EPROM programmer.

Patches for RSC-Forth

The patches directory on the Glitchworks github site contains patchfiles for changing aspects of the original RCS-Forth ROM images, also for RCS-Forth Configuration 3 (requires extra hardware):

– R65FK2P_R6501Q-SBC.patch Patches for use with Glitch Works R6501Q SBC
– R65FK3P_8_bit_serial.patch Patches to use 8N1 for serial parameters
– R65FK3P_R6501Q-SBC.patch Patches for use with Glitch Works R6501Q SBC and 32K Memory Board


R65F11 Forth computer

I have recently acquired a R65F11 IC. This IC is part of the RSC (Rockwell Single Computer) Forth system.
Rockwell Single-Chip RSC-FORTH system as implemented in the Rockwell R65F11 (40-pin) and R65F12 (64-pin) FORTH-based one-chip Microcomputers and in the Rockwell R65FR1 FORTH ROM (which I do not ahve, but the ROM dump is available on the RSC Forth page.

Circuit diagram

R65F11 1984 datasheet
R65F11 1987 datasheet
Forth Mikrocomputer Low Cost Development Module R65F11

Based upon advice and work of Glitch, see also and

Rockwell R65F11 FORTH Chip