KIM-1 PAL-1 KIM CLone KIM MicroKIM Reproduction resources

The clones of the KIM-1 that appeared the last years have renewed the interest of the retro scene.

Old software is restored or typed in again and adapted to the current use of serial terminal emulators and cross asssemblers instead of the hard copy Teletype interface and native assemblers of the old days.

This site contains a lot of that material already. I have tried to collect all older original material.

Here a link of current websites with relevant material. As usual, a list of external links always will suffer of bitrot/dead links.

Netzherpes, by Nills. Very active PAL-1 user. Lots of older software newly typed in.

KIM IEC, Dave McMurtrie’s 1541 Routines for the KIM-1

CPM-65 and Elekterminal emulator

CPM-65, a CP/M-80 like operating system for 6502 based microcomputer

Dietrich Lausberg build a Junior long ago and expanded it to quite a system. He added hardware Elektor components, floppy and hard disk drives and wrote a CP/M inspired operating system, called CP/M-65. He still uses and maintains the system!

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CPM-65 and Elekterminal emulator

CPM-65, a CP/M-80 analogue operating system for 6502 based microcomputer

Dietrich Lausberg build a Junior long ago and expanded it to quite a system. He added hardware Elektor components, floppy and hard disk drives and wrote a CP/M inspired operating system, called CP/M-65. He still uses and maintains the system!

All software is published on his github page Dietrich-L

System Requirements

  • 6502 processor
  • at least 12 kByte RAM
  • 6532 I/O chip for the system timer (could be replaced by a 6522 or other)
  • minimal 1 Floppy drive
  • Serial I/O

The system is a heavily modified and expanded Elektor Junior Computer. For system components and memory map see below.

System Structure
CPM-65 consists of 3 layers:

  • BIOS Basic I/O system – currently 3 kB, could be reduced to 2kB by removing SCSI and I2C drivers. Drives can be A-H non consecutive.
  • BDOS Basic disc operating system – this is the CPM-65 kernal. Size 2 kB
  • CCP Console command program – a simple console which only allows to invoke CPM-65 programs. No resident commands. Size 1 kB

File and Disc Format
Filenames are CP/M-style d:filename.ext with d
Programs must have .COM as extension and are loaded to $0200 and started there.

The directory structure is CP/M-compatible and can be read with appropriate tools like CPMTOOLS

The Disc format is typically 40 tracks/ 8 sectors/ 256 byte/sector. It is defined in the BIOS. The BDOS operates on sector numbers. Maximum sector number is $800 blocks with $20 sectors = 65536 sectors á 256 bytes = 16 MBytes

Software List of CPM-65

Name		Version
ALLOC		2.8
ASM	        2.5
BASIC		1.4
BDOS		2.2
BIOS		3.0
BOOT		1.7
BOOTPROM	3.0
BROWSE		1.0
CCP	        1.5
COPY            1.4
D	        2.0
DATETIME	1.1
DEBUG		1.5
DRUCKER		1.0
DUTIL		1.5
EPROMMER	1.2
ERASE		1.5
FORMAT		2.4
FORTH		1.6a
HEXMON		1.1
I2C-UTIL	1.2
RENAME		1.1
RFILE		1.1
SCSIMGR		1.1
STEP		1.0a
SUPERTAP	1.4
SYS 		1.5
SYSGEN		1.0
TYPE		1.6
XMODEM		1.2

Programming

Available software (all written by Dietrich Lausberg)

  • Basic interpreter
  • Forth interpreter
  • Assembler for 6502

All software is supplied as assembler files to be assembled with the CPM-65 assembler.

Hardware

Dietrich Lausberg’s system now has:

  • Base Junior
  • Interface card
  • 64k Universal Memorycard
  • 8k RAM/EPROM card
  • Universal Disk Controller (Elektor Computing 6) for HD SCSI disk (SD card) and floppy disk
  • EPROMmer
  • Elekterminal

Modifications made to Elektor cards

  • The Junior basecard was mapped to 1K RAM $E000-$E3FF, RIOT at $F600-$F7FF, EPROM was converted to a 2716 and is at $F800-$FFFF
  • The Interface card is mapped 1K RAM at $E400-$E7FF, 2K RAM (6116 replacing a 2716) at $E800-$EFFF, the VIA 6522 at $F800-$F9FF.
    The tape interface is removed.
  • The 64k RAM card from Elektor 83/3-60 (Universelle Speicherkarte) with 48 k RAM (6 x 6264) is mapped to $0000 – $BFFF.
    The card has a modification, which allows the Elektor EPROMMER to take over $B000-$BFFF when present on the bus
  • The 8K RAM-EPROM card was modified to 4 x 6116 at $C000-$DFFF, 1K RAM $F000-$F3FF

All modifications in the adressing were done with the existing glue logic. I know, its a bit convoluted, but it has evolved over time – actually the last change is from 2021. The system works very stable. So the mapping does not violate the 6502 timing requrements.

The target always was to have as much consecutive RAM from zero page to HIMEM as possible. This is a bit CP/M style and makes it easy for the software to use as much RAM as it can grab until the CCP is met (cwhich is currently at $D800). CPM-65 has up to 53 kB transient memory. The largest program is BASIC, which easily assembles in the RAM to a 10 kB program with 26K to spare. Basic then has 45247 Bytes free.

Drives

  • A: and B:  2 x BASF 6108 40 Tracks double density
  • C:  Gotek with Flashfloppy V3.32 from Keir Fraser emulating another 40 tracks DD drive
  • E: and F: SCSI drive SCSI2SD V5.1 by Michael McMaster configured to emulate 2 x 16 MB harddiscs

Serial interface
Serial 1200 – 9600 Baud TTY to ELEKTERMINAL (1200 Baud) or Terminal emulator (600 Baud). As emulator TeraTerm is ued especially for file transfer via Xmodem or a a self-written ELEKTERMINAL emulator. The emulator is necessary, because some of the software, most notably the FORTH screen editor needs the very specific ELEKTERMINAL control codes.

TTY9600 Elekterminal Emulator

This program emulates the ELEKTERMINAL published by the magazine ELEKTOR in November/December 1978.

All software is published on his github page Dietrich-L

The program is written in Free Pascal and compiles in the LAZARUS PASCAL environment. The TTY5.EXE is verified to work under Windows 10 64 bit. No installation is needed, just invoke TTY5

Commands

   alt-B - Baudrate                      alt-I - info
   alt-C - COM-Port
   alt-H - help
   alt-D - debug
   alt-X - exit

Fixed parameters:

	word length = 8       
	stop bits = 1
	parity bit = none
	flow = no     

These parameters can be changed in the source code only.

ELEKTERMINAL commands
The ELEKTERMINAL uses the SF.F 96364 CRT Controller and some glue logic. The terminal displays 16 lines with 64 characters and interprets some ASCII command codes

Code 	Function
$08	Cursor <--
$09	Cursor -->
$0A	Cursor down
$0B	Cursor up
$0C	Home cursor + clear screen
$0D	Carriage Return
$1A	Clear current line
$1C	Home Cursor
$1D	Cursor to begin of line

Elektor books Junior and Computing

Added to the Elektor book pages:
– Junior Book 1 Francais
– Elektor Computing German 1-6

KIM-1 Enhancement PROM

This source for an enhancement of the KIM-1 contains Jim Butterfield’s Supertape and some other utilities and code.
The PROM is to be placed on top of memory, it contains the RESET/NMI/IRQ vectors.
The source listing for a PROM designed to enhance the KIM-1.
Written by René Vega of Detroit in September 1976. From the archives of Peter Jennings.

;	THE FOLLOWING ROUTINES MAY BE ENTERED VIA THE
;	"GO" KEY ON THE KEYPAD.
;
;	FC00 - SUPRTP - KIM CASSETTE HIGH SPEED DUMP.
;	FE3B - COMPTP - ROUTINE TO COMPARE A KIM FORMAT
;			CASSETTE WITH CONTENTS OF MEMORY.
;	FE46 - VIEWTP - ROUTINE TO LOOK AT A KIM FORMAT
;			CASSETTE WITHOUT ALTERING MEMORY.
;	FE4F - LOADTP - ROUTINE TO LOAD A BLOCK IN KIM
;			AUDIO CASSETTE FORMAT.
;	FCEA - LDSYS  - ROUTINE TO LOAD MULTIPLE BLOCKS
;			INTO MEMORY REGARDLESS OF THE ID
;			NUMBERS ON THE TAPE. UPON LOADING A
;			BLOCK THAT BEGINS AT $EF, THE
;			ROUTINE JUMPS TO ($EF).

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KIM-1 Enhancement PROM

This source for an enhancement of the KIM-1 contains Jim Butterfield’s Supertape and some other utilities and code.
The PROM is to be placed on top of memory, it contains the RESET/NMI/IRQ vectors.
The source listing for a PROM designed to enhance the KIM-1.
Written by René Vega of Detroit in September 1976. From the archives of Peter Jennings.

;	THE FOLLOWING ROUTINES MAY BE ENTERED VIA THE
;	"GO" KEY ON THE KEYPAD.
;
;	FC00 - SUPRTP - KIM CASSETTE HIGH SPEED DUMP.
;	FE3B - COMPTP - ROUTINE TO COMPARE A KIM FORMAT
;			CASSETTE WITH CONTENTS OF MEMORY.
;	FE46 - VIEWTP - ROUTINE TO LOOK AT A KIM FORMAT
;			CASSETTE WITHOUT ALTERING MEMORY.
;	FE4F - LOADTP - ROUTINE TO LOAD A BLOCK IN KIM
;			AUDIO CASSETTE FORMAT.
;	FCEA - LDSYS  - ROUTINE TO LOAD MULTIPLE BLOCKS
;			INTO MEMORY REGARDLESS OF THE ID
;			NUMBERS ON THE TAPE. UPON LOADING A
;			BLOCK THAT BEGINS AT $EF, THE
;			ROUTINE JUMPS TO ($EF).

Source in TASM format, typed in by Rich Cini.

Source on paper



OUP/M – A 6502 CP/M Operating system

A thesis by Jian – Xiong Shao, 1983, titled OUP/M – A 6502 Operating system, contains a floppy disk based operating system for the 6502. It is modelled after CP/M and follows the same design principles.
In the development of OUP/M, an OSI C-3 microcomputer system was used. This system consists of a 6502 CPU, a dual 8-inch floppy disk drive, a console, a printer, and 56 K bytes of RAM.
On this machine all I/O is memory mapped and address space layout has to be taken into consideration.

For years only the document was available, archived on archive.org, with the source in the document.
Jian – Xiong Shao did not publish more 6502 code, further implementations are unknown.

See the OUP/M page for sources and binaries found on osiweb.

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OUP/M – A 6502 CP/M Operating system

A thesis by Jian – Xiong Shao, 1983, titled OUP/M – A 6502 Operating system, contains a floppy disk based operating system for the 6502. It is modelled after CP/M and follows the same design principles.
In the development of OUP/M, an OSI C-3 microcomputer system was used. This system consists of a 6502 CPU, a dual 8-inch floppy disk drive, a console, a printer, and 56 K bytes of RAM.
On this machine all I/O is memory mapped and address space layout has to be taken into consideration.

For years only the document was available, archived on archive.org, with the source in the document.
Jian – Xiong Shao did not publish more 6502 code, further implementations are unknown.

A revival

In 2018, a thread on the osiweb.org forum appeared, user KIball, Charles Mangin, option8, typed in the sources and tested it on an emulated OSI C3.
The results are published on his github.

OUP/M – A 6502 CP/M Operating system,
A thesis by Jian – Xiong Shao, 1983,
Sources by Charles Mangin
Assembled and emulator by KLYball, from the osiweb thread
CP_M clone for OSI CIII – thread osiweb.org

More Elektor Junior

I think I am for now finished with the Junior pages:

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Junior Computer Replica by laurent-fr

This is a replica PCB made with KiCAD.

This board is not a 100% accurate replica, because the added directly on the PCB a few updates published later by Elektor :

  • a fix for memory decoding needed for the expansion board
  • the main decoupling capacitor C2 was on wrong side of S25 (activate display) which could reset the computer
  • a simple reset circuit with a resistor and a capacitor
  • Also replaced the 2708 EPROM by a 2716, which avoid the need of a hard to find EPROM & EPROM programmer, and has the big benefit of reducing the required power supplies from 3 (+5,-5,+12) to only +5V.

More details, also yet untested Interface card and other cards at his github page.