My AIM 65s

My (former) AIM 65 collection, a PC100 Siemens OEM with custom software and a German manual, and a stock AIM 65 with full documentation.


Other, AIM 65/40 information

Application Notes, datasheets, other articles, AIM 65/40 information

Datasheet AIM 65 A65-100 A65-400

Datasheet AIM 65/40 A65/40-2000 -3000 -4000 -5000

RS-232C Interface for AIM 65

A CRT Monitor or TV Interface for AIM 65

Printer Control with the R6522 VIA

Optimizing Usage of the AIM 65 I/O block

Preparing AIM 65 BASIC program for PROM ROM Operation

AIM 65 enclosure

How to replace a printerhead for the AIM 65.

AIM Expansion Motherboard

AIM 65 Program Timer

AIM 65 PROM Programmer and CO-ED Module

AIM 65 Laboratory Manual And Study Guide By Leo Scanlon


(Part No. A65-905-08) with 8K CMOS RAM (4x2K) and four sockets for 4 x 4K PROM/ROM for use with the Rockwell packaged 500 Series of desktop microcomputers or any AIM 65 board-level microcomputer with Buffer Module. Document No. 29000D98

Many applications of AIM 65 microcomputers, particularly in test equipment, instrumentation, monitors, analyzers or controllers, require that the resident application software or fixed parametric data be changed periodically. This may occur because the item under test or being controlled has been changed, or parameter values have been revised. For OEM installations, the change may be required to customize the system (or different customers).
The AIM 65 Memory Cartridge system is an economical and convenient method for expanding the memory of an AIM 65 microcomputer. The cartridges are designed for use with the Rockwell packaged 500 Series of desktop microcomputers, but may also be used with any AIM 65 board-level microcomputer. This Memory Cartridge is ideal to be used for swapping to the Buffer Module needed to connect to the AIM 65 Master Module. This Memory Cartridge has 8K CMOS RAM and the PROM/ROM part is unpopulated for complete user flexibility.
Rugged injection molded plastic covers the Memory Cartridge complementing the AIM 65 Enclosure in color, texture and sturdiness. A Memory Cartridge plugs vertically into the Buffer Module which is needed immediately behind the microcomputer enclosure to require a minimum of area in desktop applications. A recessed label area on the Memory Cartridge cover allows configuration information to be neatly added in an area visible to the operator (see picture). Address decoding required by the different cartridges is accomplished automatically without user intervention.

• Preconfigured Memory Cartridge Combination RAM and PROM/ROM sockets
• Convenient Memory Cartridge plug-in installation to Buffer Module (needed)
• Use with any AIM 65 500 Series Desktop Microcomputer
• Compatible with A65-006 enclosure and power supply
• Cartridges are fully assembled and tested

AIM 65 Memory Cartridge

Bubble Memory Products

AIM-65 Bubble Memory

Bubble memory R3288-11 ROM
Cubit 6516 Programmer

Cubit 6516 Eprom Programmer manual and photos



Newsletter, published by Rockwell, with as editor the well known Eric Rehnke. Last issue april 1982.

Interactive Issue 1
Interactive Issue 2
Interactive Issue 3
Interactive Issue 4
Interactive Issue 5
Interactive Issue 6
Interactive Issue 7
Interactive Issue 8

AIM 65 Manuals and software

User’s Guide
Contains the monitor and optional assembler ROM functionality, see also below for Monitor listings and ROMs.

Programming Manual

Hardware Manual

Circuit diagram

Large format scan of Circuit diagram AIM 65 Poster

AIM 65 Schematic Poster revision 4
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 0
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 1
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 2
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 3
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 4
Circuit diagram PDF format Revision 5

Dynatem took over AIM 65 production via a license from Rockwell after 1986.
Here a document describing revisions of the board.

Reference card

Basic Language Reference manual in PDF format
Basic Language Reference manual in text format
First Basic ROM R3225-11
Second Basic ROM R3226-11 part R32J1-11
See Create your own Version of Microsoft BASIC for 6502 and Microsoft BASIC for 6502 for a commented assembler source for AIM 65 Basic.
GW Basic 2.1 for AIM 65 and PC100 ROM 1 , ROM 2 ROM 3 
GW Basic 2.3 for AIM 65 and PC100 ROM 1 , ROM 2 ROM 3 
Dump of the Basic ROMS in my Siemens PC100 by Philippe
The last number in the ROM file is the location of the ROM in the board, see photo.

Basic reference card AIM 65

AIM 65 Forth Manual for the AIM65, V1.3, first two chapters, overview, installation and start for AIM 65

AIM 65 Forth V1.4 Manual for the AIM 65/40, after chapter 2 is this manual also applicable also to AIM 65

Compact A65-050 AIM Forth ROMS description of all Forth words

First Forth ROM V1.3 AIM 65-050
Second Forth ROM AIM 65-050
Math Package A65-040 D000, floating point words

Monitor program listing in PDF format

Monitor and assembler are described in the AIM 65 User’s Guide.
Monitor ROM R3222 
Monitor ROM R3223-11 
Assembler ROM R3224 
Monitor ROM Dynatem Only change is copyright string Rockwell to Dynatem
Monitor ROM Dynatem identical to R3233
Monitor source in AIM 65 assembler format
Monitor V1.1 source in TASM format

The last number in the ROM file is the location of the ROM in the board, see photo.



PL/65 Manual in PDF format

PL/65 Manual in text format
PL/65 disassembly, no comments
PL/65 V1.0 ROM 1 
PL/65 V1.0 ROM 2 
The last number in the ROM file is the location of the ROM in the board, see photo.

Instant Pascal manual

Instant Pascal, an interactive Pascal variant “INSTANT PASCAL(TM) (C)1981 MELVIN E. CONWAY”
5 ROMS, available in hex format. See the manual how to install, it needs an external expansion adapter, see the Other AIM 65 page.

Background of Instant Pascal

By Mel Conway

I proposed to Rockwell to build an “Instant Pascal” trainer to run on the AIM-65, and the proposal was accepted. The AIM-65 was a single-board computer with an 8-bit Rockwell 6502 (the processor used in the Apple II), 4K bytes (that’s right, 4096 bytes) of internal “random-access” memory (RAM), up to 20K bytes of on-board “read-only” memory (ROM), and various byte-at-a-time input-output possibilities. The user interface consisted of a teletype-like keyboard, a single-line 20-position LED alphanumeric display, and a thermal strip printer with 20 characters per line. (The only widely used external storage was an audio cassette recorder.) The intention was that the user would get Instant Pascal in the form of a set of ROMs. You plug these ROMs into the AIM-65 and you have a Pascal trainer.

The AIM-65 had multiple hardware limitations. The major one, of course, was the 4K RAM. But the single-line display wasn’t helpful. Clearly, any Pascal editor would have to be a “line” editor, not a “screen” editor. The traditional solution would have been to prepare a program in four steps: (1) the entry step, in which you prepare a source tape; (2) the edit step, in which you modify your source program by doing tape-to-tape copies under control of the keyboard and display; (3) the compile step, in which you read a source tape and write an object tape; and (4) the run step, in which you load the object tape and execute it. Debugging is clearly a problem because you have to have both the source program in view (so you can find and fix your mistakes) and the object program in memory (so the program can run). How can you do that in 4K of memory? And how are you going to do all four (or five, if there is a separate debugger) steps under control of 20K of ROM? I had no intention of building a language trainer that way.

There was an alternative: to store the Pascal source code in the 4K RAM and interpret it directly. Waterloo Pascal1 did that. They had the right idea, but directly interpreting source code made it really slow compared to BASIC, which was the alternative at the time. I was, frankly, relieved to discover how slow Waterloo Pascal was, because I already had the outline of another approach.

The Approach

As with Waterloo Pascal, my solution to eliminating the build-run dissonance was a single internal representation of the program that stayed in RAM. It had to be compact, efficiently interpretable, and readily translatable back to Pascal source so that no source program needed to be stored. The approach I took is today called a “tokenized” representation of the Pascal program. The internal representation of the Pascal program was syntactically correct Pascal: I specified the token language using the formal Pascal syntax. This assured syntactic similarity between external and internal representations of a program. I put one constraint on the user: text had to be entered in “prettyprint” form (no indenting necessary), one line per prettyprint line. Fortunately, this was not a source of complaint, because entering code this way was considered to be good practice; thus this most serious limitation was reframed as a feature. The prettyprint input constraint permitted line-by-line translation into token form (and local syntax checking, with immediate feedback), and there was no need to store more than one line of Pascal text internally.

The parts of the program consisted of (1) a single-line source-code tokenizer/syntax checker (“forward translator” from keyboard to RAM); (2) its reverse, a single-line token-to-source “backward translator” from RAM to printer; and (3) a token interpreter that executed the program. There was a fourth component, a “binder,” that scanned the tokenized program after you entered the “run” command, and established (and checked) those syntactic connections that spanned multiple lines. The binder had very little to do, and its execution time was typically imperceptible. Source-code debugging fell out of this design: any line being executed by the interpreter can at the same time be output as Pascal source by the backward translator. During debugging the system could appear to execute at the source level, stop on lines with breakpoints, and evaluate source-level “watch” expressions.

The Lesson

The result of this design was the illusion of executing Pascal source language, but at the speeds of typical BASIC programs. In fact, maintaining the illusion of a single program representation became the principal user-interface design goal. It is this illusion of always dealing with your program at the source-code level that resolves the build/run dissonance and that obviates the need for a separate debugger.

The design was successful and next found itself inside Macintosh Pascal in 1984. But the resolution of the dissonance wasn’t complete. Instant Pascal was a trainer, not a construction tool. As compiler writers know, you don’t have a real production tool until you can build the tool using itself, and this could not be done.

KIM-1 Magazines

A page devoted to magazines that paid much attention to the KIM-1.

The first two magazines are of dutch origin, in which I was a major contributor and (chief) editor.

KIM/6502 Kenner

The KIM/6502 Kenner magazine, published by the dutch KIM user Club, has of course many articles on the KIM-1.
I contributed many articles and was (chief) editor of issue 10 to 25.
Here the indexed archive.

Radio Bulletin

From 1977 to 1986 Radio Bulletin published many articles written by me and others about the KIM-1.
Here the archive of relevant articles.

MICRO The 6502 Journal

Published by Robert M. Tripp, The Computerist
Published from 1977 tot 1983. The first years many KIM-1/SYM-1/AIM-65 articles, slowly faded to Apple Atari etc in later years, and ended in 1984.
The whole archive is here.


A magazine devoted mostly to 6502 computers. Apart from the Compute II period, before and afterwards also the small SBCs like IM-1 got attention of Compute!
Nearly all of Compute! lives here.
The Internet archive has all issues

Compute II

Compute II was a short lived split-off of Compute! and also a continuation of the KIM-1/6502 User Notes. Three issues and it was merged back with Compute! again.

HTML version of Issue 1
PDF of Compute II Issue 1
HTML version of Issue 2
PDF of Compute II Issue 2
HTML version of Issue 3
PDF of Compute II Issue 3

KIM-1/6502 User Notes

KIM-1/6502 User Notes is a publication about the KIM-1, slowly evolving to other 6502 systems like SYM-1 and AIM 65.
Editor was the famous Eric Rehnke. After issue 17 it merged with Compute II.

          KIM-1 / 6502 USER NOTES INDEX BY SUBJECT VOLUME 1(Issues 1 till 6)

Application suggestions   1        Correction To Memory Map -------- 2
Calculator--Interface     4        Defective 6502 chips------------- 3
            Interface     6        Discussion of Memory Allocation - 5
          --T.I.5050      5        DISPLAY (on board)
Chess Clock Program       4           red filter for-----------------5
CONTROLLING                      Use of------------------------------1,5
 --- Function Generator   1        EXPANSION OF SYSTEM
 --- Light Intensity      4           KIMSI--------------------------4
 --- Motor Speed          4           MEMORY
 --- Touch tone encoder   1            Adding memory to KIM-1--------5
Degree Dispatch Computer  5            Diagnostic------------------- 2,5
Frequency Counter         3            Expansion---------------------4,3
                                  OSI Memory-------------------------3
GAMES                             Using SD Sales 4K RAM Board        3
  Bagels----------------- 5       Hardware tips
  Battleship--------------6          Packaging KIM-1 --------------- 6,3
  Horserace-------------- 3          Power Supply for KIM ---------- 4
  Hunt the Wampus-------- 2          Red Filter for Display----------5
  Jotto------------------ 5       INTERVAL TIMERS :
  Kimmaze---------------- 4          The Other Timer-----------------2
  Microchess------------- 3          and cassette                    2
  Mastermind------------- 5          Use Of--------------------------5,5
  Moon Lander-----------1,3       MIKIM------------------------------5
HEDEX Program             1       OPERATION TIPS
MATH TEST Program         4          Using SST  ---------------------2
Mini-l Loran-c            6          Using ST   to start programs----4
MUSIC:KlugeHarp     3,2,6,6       Page 1 Programming Problems--------6
Real Time Clock        4, 5       Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
Square wave generator     5       Power Supply-----------------------4
Stopwatch Program         2       Presetting 00F1, 00F2              4
Telephone Dialer        4,4         System Architecture              3
                                  Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
CASSETTE PROBLEMS/SUGGESTIONS     Presetting 00F1, 00F2              4
Certification of tape     6       System Architecture                3
Copying Cassette tape     3       TABLES for KIM-1
Fast tape problems        6          Interval Timer Table------------3
Hypertape               2,6           Relative Branch table----------2
Interval timer/cassette   1          OP Code table-------------------4
Notes on cassette         6       Techniques
PLL set program           5          Mnemonic Improvement------------41
PROBLEMS with Cassette    3                   BIT Data---------------41
Software control of tape         Top Down Programming                4
  reading                 4      Modifications/ IMPROVEMENTS
Speed up                  4         Crystal Stabilization------------5
Supertape                 2         Factory Mods. -------------------4
Supertape improvement     4         6502 Register Monitor Apparatus  4
Tape Certifying           6         74Ls145 ------------------------ 3,4
Tape Dupe                 4      6502 Microprocessor Board-----------6
Using Cassette            6         POWER ON RESET CIRCUIT           3
Varification of Data      4         NOTES FROM THE FACTORY           5
Vutape                    2      

                         INDEX Issue 13
SOFTWARE FEATURE                                                         1
     KIM Hexpawn (your KIM can learn to win)        Robert C. Leedon

6502 OP CODES (arranged logically for easy look up) Jim Butterfield      6

CASSETTE INTERFACE STUFF                                                 7
     Tape Verify II                                 Dr. Barry Tepperman
     Radio Tape Feedback                            Daniel Gardner
     Reliability Hint                               John Watney
     Help Relay Package Fixit                       Mike Firth
     Tape File Recovery Routine                     Loel Swank
     KIM Software On Cassette

LANGUAGE LAB                                                             10
          I/O Mods                                  Editor
          Functions                                 Editor

          I/O Mods                                  Marvin De Jong
          A Basic Question                          Editor
          Basic Timing Comments                     F. E. Kempisty
          KIM Basic Hint                            Micro-Z Company
          Basic Renumber Program                    Harvey Herman

     Tiny Basic
          Two Tiny Basic Mods                       Michael Day
          Ramblings About T.B.                      Lew Edwards

          Forth Comments Example                   John P. Oliver

          Two Pass Patch To Aresco Assembler        John Eaton
          Mods To MSS Assembler                     Richard M. Bender

DESSIGN CORNER                                                           16
     A 6522 I/O Board

KIM-4 BUS PINOUT                                                         18

VIDEO  GRAPHICS                                                          19
     Video Displays                                 Editor
     Comments On Visible Memory                     Lew Edwards
     TVT-6 Adventure                                Dennis Chaput
     TVT-6 RAM Expansion                            Michael Allen
     Polymorphics Video Board Mods                  Editor

DEBUG                                                                    21
     Slow Stepper IV                                Lew Edwards

LETTERS  COMMENTS                                                        22

     Multi-Mode Adder                               Jim Butterfield
     Pseudo-Random Number Generator                 H. T. Gordon
     ASCII Dump Program                             Jim Zuber
     Keyboard Debounce Routine                      Thomas J. Rubens
     Sound Effects Program                          Bob Carlson
     Melodies For The Music Box                     Douglas Lyon
     'Do Loops'; For KIM                            Dave Skillman

INTERFACE                                                                26
     Camera Speed Tester                            Mike Firth
     Low-Cost Modem Possibility                     Editor
     RPN Calculator Chip Interface                  Editor
     Power-On Reset                                 George Hawkins
     The Outside World Connection                   Editor
     More On The Opto-Isolator                      Dwight Egbert

NEW PRODUCTS                                                             28
     Video Driver Package
     Price Decrease On Jolt Boards
     A 8080 Simulator For The 6502
     Eprom Programmer

                         INDEX Issue 14

SOFTWARE FEATURES                                                         1
     KIM BANNER PROGRAM                             JIM ZUBER
     CHECK-OUT                                      ROBERT LARRABEE

LANGUAGE LAB                                                             12
          OUTPUT PAGING MOD                         DICK GRABOWSKY
          A NEW COMMAND                             DICK GRABOWSKY
          'USR' FUNCTION INFO                       C. KINGSTON

SYM SECTION                                                              18
     ACCESSING THE SYM DISPLAYS                     A.M. MACKAY
     WUMPUS   MUSIC BOX MODS                        JIM ADAMS

AIM SECTION                                                              19
     MANUAL CORRECTIONS                             JODY NELIS

VIDEO   TVT-6                                                            23
     TVT-6 NOTES & RAM EXPANSION                    MILAN MERHAR

CASSETTE STUFF                                                           25
     MAKE A SHORT CASSETTE                          TED BEACH

KIM-1 User Notes Volume 0, July 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 1, September 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 1, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 2, November 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 2, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 3, Januari 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 3, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 4, March 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 4, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 5 May 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 5 May 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 6, July 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 6, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 7/8, September November 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 7/8, Other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 9/10 January March 1978
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 9/10 other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 11 May 78
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 11 other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 12
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 12 other version
6502 User Notes Volume 13
6502 User Notes Volume 13. incomplete other version
6502 User Notes Volume 14
6502 User Notes Volume 15
6502 User Notes Volume 16
6502 User Notes Volume 17

PC utilities hex formats

Updated December 2020, Linux compilation checked, bugs fixed, online program for comverting binary to wave file.

To aid in the handling of KIM-1 program and dataformats I have written some programs for Windows and Linux (Raspbian), sources included.

KIM Tape WAV to BIN conversion
Convert 8 bit hex formats
KIMPoser Tape Convert hex to WAV online
KIM Tape Convert BIN and BIN to WAV

KIM-1 simulator
All programs come with source (Free Pascal Lazarus), compiled for Windows but thanks to Freepascal and Lazarus also compiled and tested on Linux.

KIM Paper

Note that the Conver8bitHexFormat program is also capable of converting to and from Papertape format from many more formats.
Originally written for the launch of the MicroKIM, an older version is on the support CD.

When you attach a serial device like the teletype or a modern PC with Hyperterminal you can use the TIM monitor of the KIM-1. One of the functions is loading from and saving to a papertape device on the teletype. Now since this is a way to load and save data as a textfile this is in fact quite useful.
The Micro-KIM triggered me to modernize my conversion utility for MOS Technology papertape format dating from 1983, VAX/VMS and Turbo Pascal. A Windows and a commandline/console version are available.

KIMPAPER for Windows

A program for Windows to convert between papertape and binary format.

Windows setup KIMPAPER
Sources (Freepascal Lazarus, build also on Linux)


Not too modern, but handy, a commandline utility. Does exactly the same as the Windows program KIMPAPER. Runs fine in a commandline DOS box. Can also be compiled for Linux with Freepascal. In the KIMPAPER DOS archive the program, source and information on the program and papertape format can be found.

KIM-1 MOS Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1

Syntax is:
KIMPAPER [-[b|p] filename [startaddress]
C:\MICROKIM\kimpaper -h
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Syntax is: KIMPAPER [-[b|p|h] filename [startaddress] first parameter switches
-h help
-p convert to papertape
-b convert to binary
second parameter (first if no parameters, assumed binary to papertape)
name of file to convert
.BIN for binary, forces conversion to PAPertape
.PAP for papertape, forces conversion to BINary
third parameter (assumed 0000 if not present)
startaddress for BIN to papertape conversion
Files of type .BIN wil force conversion to papertape.PAP
Files of type .PAP wil force conversion to binary .BIN

C:\MICROKIM\kimpaper mastermind.bin 0200
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
C:\MICROKIM>kimpaper mastermind.pap
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Start address 0200 in file mastermind.BIN

Convert 8 bit hex formats V2

A general purpose utility to convert common 8 bit hex and binary formats, such as Intel HEX, Motorola S records, MOS Papertape, hex format, and binary files.

source files (Freepascal Lazarus, Windows, Linux, binary for RPI OS).
Convert8bithexformaSetup for Windows
Available formats:
– BIN binary, raw data, no formatting, no information on start address.
– HEX formatted as hex numbers raw data, no start address included.
– IHEX Intel hex 8 bit format, multiple memory block, start address included.
– PAP MOS Technology papertape format, multiple memory blocks, start address included.
– SREC Motorola 8 bit S record, contiguous memory block, start address included.
– A1hex Apple Woz monitor hex format, start address included.

Convert KIM tape to text

KIM Tape to Text is a utility to convert between binary format of a KIM-1 tape dump to a DOS text file.
The KIM tape dump is a binary file and is just a dump of part of the memory of the KIM-1.
This binary file can be a text file as used in editors Micro Ade or CW Assm/TED.
By using the tape write routine in the KIM-1 one can write an audio file on cassette.
When this audio file is captured on a PC as WAV file (22K, mono) this can be converted back to a binary memory dump with ED’s Utility KIMTape
These text files can be converted to DOS text files with this utility.

First open the binary file. If this is recognized as Micro Ade or CW Moser format, the Save as text file can be used.

Windows program.
Full source for Freepascal and Lazarus, no Windows dependencies. Compiled on 64 bits Windows 10 as 32 bit application.

Note on detection of assembler editor type
1. Micro Ade file must start with CR: when present this is Micro Ade
line nr follows 2 byte
line ends with $0D
file ends with $40
2. Assm/Ted by CW Moser starts with line number $10 $00
end of line is high bit set
There may be rare situations that a file starts with a $0D or a different line nr. You can force CW Mose detection by changing this to a sequence of $10 $00 $0D and if necessary blanks $20 to make it consistent. If in doubts: use an editor that shows the file in hex (Ultra Edit, or the free Notepad ++, Text editor PRO) and study the tape file.

Methods to get the binary file out of a Junior or KIM-1.
Read the record tape into a binary with Ed’s KIMTAPE conversion *see below). It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS ( or DOsbox (slow).
Make a note of start address as shown by KIMTAPE.
Non-printing ASCII characters are filtered out of the resulting text file.

KIM Tape Convert WAV to BIN and BIN to WAV

Not my program, but so handy!

KIMTAPE v0.5 – tape conversion utility for KIM-1 and SYM-1 (2004-05-17) Local copy of

KIMTAPE allows programs stored on cassette tape to be decoded to a program file. It handles both MOS Technology KIM-1 and Synertek SYM-1 tape formats including HYPERTAPE. The reverse process – converting a program file to an audio wavefile is also possible, allowing one to produce perfectly regenerated cassettes. KIMTAPE works with 8-bit mono WAV, VOC or RAW audio files recorded
at 22050 samples per second.

Download: (MS-DOS) It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS ( or DOSbox (slow).

The binary files in the KIM-1 program archives have been reproduced, from the original cassette recordings, with the tool KIMTAPE on a PC in a DOS box. See Eds DX-Forth and Utilities Page for this and other nice programs.
This program also makes it possible to reproduce the original cassette recordings that can be read by a KIM-1.

The files were made as follows: The KIM-1 cassette audio was connected to the PC audio input and (with e.g. Audacity) recorded as a wave file (mono 22KHz).
For example: qchess.wav
The wave file was then converted with KIMTAPE to a binary file (the exact content of of the KIM-1 memory when recorded).
And the KIMTAPE utility then displays load address (for example and tape ID

c:\kimtape qchess.wav qchess.bin
KIMTAPE version 0.5 17-May-04
infile: qchess.wav
outfile: qchess.BIN
Program 01 address 0200 checksum OK xxxx bytes done

This .bin file (any extension is fine!) is NOT a wave file! It contains the exact content of the KIM-1 memory when recorded. The size is exactly the number of bytes as stored in the memory of the KIM-1 and much smaller than the wave file. This binary file can be converted back to a wave file with KIMTAPE or converted to a papertape file with KIMPAPER:

C:\kimtape -M -A0200 -D01 -B2 qchess.bin qchess.wav 

As you can see: you have to specify the load address and the program ID. The B parameter indicates hypertape speed (2 here, slow)
The resulting wav file should be acceptable for the KIM-1. It is (as I have tested) acceptable as input for KIMTAPE!

All command parameters can be seen by typing KIMTAPE without parameters:

KIM-1 simulator

Work in progress, 6502/65C02 CPU emulation, disassembler, TTY, KIM-1 keypad and LEDs.

AIM 65

AIM 65 was Rockwells SBC in the tradiotion of KIM-1 and VIM/SYM-1, sharing the Applicatioonand Expansion connector designs, so add-ons could be used on all three. The Keypad/LED was replaced with a full keybaord and 20 character display, making it more a desktop computer than a SBC.

The Rockwell AIM-65 computer was a development computer introduced in 1978 based on the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor. Available software included a line-oriented machine code monitor, BASIC interpreter, assembler, Pascal, PL/65, and FORTH development system. Later developments were the AIM 65/40 (40 character display, memory banks) and the RM 65 card based development system. After 1984 Rockwell stopoped with the AIM 65 and RM 65 product lines.

Advanced Interactive Monitor is a SBC with a 6502 at 1 MHz, 1-4K RAM, 20 colums alphanumeric display, full ASCII keyboard.

Technical specifications
– Built-in full sized QWERTY keyboard
– 20 character alphanumeric LED display (16 segments)
– Integrated 20 character thermal printer
– 20mA current-loop serial interface (can be adapted to RS232)
– Expansion connector (KIM-1 compatible)
– Application connector with 6522 VIA chip
– 4 KB RAM
– 5 sockets for 4 KB ROM/EPROM chips

The AIM memory map is:
$0000-$9FFF: RAM (early Rockwell versions only had $0000-$0FFF on board).
$A000-$AFFF: I/O & scratchpad memory; some areas can be made available for more RAM.
$B000-$CFFF: Optional Language ROMs (BASIC, Forth, PL/65, Pascal).
$D000-$DFFF: Optional Assembler or Mathpack
$E000-$FFFF: Firmware and monitor program

Rockwell produced the AIM 65 until 1985, and manufactured by Dynatem under license in early 1986 after Rockwell had ceased production. Though the Revision 4 AIM 65 is quite similar to earlier iterations, the subsequent Revision 5 hardware features a redesigned clock generator and support for newer RAM and ROM IC types which became available over the production lifespan of the AIM 65. Relative to Rockwell-manufactured examples, the Dynatem AIM 65 is quite rare. See the Manuals and Software page for circuit diagrams revisions.

De PC 100 getest, an article by me, Hans Otten, August 1980,
in Radio Bulletin about the Siemens PC100, an AIM 65 with a case,
german documentation and sold by Siemens, Brutech in the Netherlands.

See the articles on the MC-65, a AIM 65 compatible system by the german magazine MC Die Microcomputer-zeitschrift

The dutch magazine Radio Bulletin (RB, RB Electronics) has a long history, going way back to the early years of electronics. The name was derived from what electronics meant for amateurs in these days: building radios yourself.
It was published by Uitgeverij de Muiderkring, a publishing company in the Amroh group of companies.

The magazine was published in large volumes in the years 1970-1985, due to the popularity of do-it-yourself electronics and audio. Also the beginning of the microprocessor revolution was adequately covered and the great years of the hobbycomputers 1980-1990 were contributing to the success. Besides the magazine Uitgeverij de Muiderkring published many books on electronics. After 1990 the success faded and the magazine left the mass market and stopped in 2003. The publishing company Uitgeverij de Muiderkring, together with Amroh, went bankrupt in 2002 (I lived closely to the last location and saw the empty offices when passing by).

In 1977 Dick de Boer joined the staff of RB and introduced the readers to microprocessors and in particular the 6502 and the KIM-1. Also the KIM Gebruikers Club and the HCC were founded that year and RB started to write articles about all this exciting new developments!
I was then already a freelance writer about electronics but Dick made me study the microcomputer such as the KIM-1 and made me join the KIM
Gebruikers Club and the HCC (member 760 member). Dick de Boer, his successor Paul de Beer and me (Hans Otten) and others wrote many articles about the KIM-1 and related 6502 based systems for Radio Bulletin. Especially Dick wrote good introduction articles and developed sophisticated hardware and software like a graphical display. After leaving the magazine he became a software engineer and helped me also to my first job as software engineer in 1980. Me and Paul de Beer concentrated more on expanding 6502 systems like the KIM-1 with memory (RAM, ROM) and I/O cards like PIA, VIA and ACIA and mass-storage such as the Mini Digital Cassette Recorder. The bus of this expansion system was the so called BEM-bus.

I did translate a book Computer Interfaces by Owen Bishop for de Muiderkring to dutch. A scanned version is presented here.

All these articles are downloadable here, as they describe my publishing history and my KIM-1 system, designs by us of which the prints sold quite well. As you can see in the long list of articles the KIM and the 6502 played a major role in the microprocessor revolution starting in 1977 and lasting until 1987 for me.

What you see about Amroh, Uitgeverij de Muiderkring and Radio Bulletin is:

Selection of my and others articles 1977 – 1987 in Radio Bulletin
the RB Specials
the Cosmicos 1802 CPU based system by H.B. Stuurman, book and articles
some bits about the long history of Radio Bulletin
Elektronica ABC, the diy magazine

See also:

– Dr Blan articles on Step-by-Step radios
– Step by Step radio by Amroh