post

Books 6502

KIM-1, AIM-65, SYM-1 and other 6502/65C02/65C816 related books.

A mix of English, German and Dutch books.

On my bookshelf I have quite a collection of books on the 6502 family.

Note that manuals and books that come with systems are shown on the pages of the corresponding system!

1984 Rockwell Data Book
6502 Software Gourmet Guide and Cookbook
6502 Users Manual
AIM 65 Laboratory Manual And Study Guide
Anwendunsgbeispiele fûr den Microprozessor 6502
Microprocessor_Fundamentals KIM-1
Best of Micro Volume 1 1978
Best of Micro Volume 2 1979
Compute’s Machine Language for Beginners
Compute’s The Second Book of Machine Language
Programming a Microcomputer 6502
Programmieren von Mikrocomputern CPU 6502 (Skriptum)
How to Build a Microcomputer .. and really Understand It!
Mikrocomputer ohne Ballast
Micro Principles KIM-1 user guide chapter 8
Digitaalschakelen met de KIM-1
6502 Assembly Language Programming
6502 Programmieren in ASSEMBLER
Microcomputer Experimentation with the MOS Technology KIM-1
6502 Machinetaal Subroutines
6502 Assembly Language Subroutines
Microcomputer experimentation with the AIM 65
Machine Language Programming Cookbook part 1
Machine Code for Beginners
microcomputer systems principles featuring the 6502 KIM
Beyond Games: System Software for your 6502 Personal Computer
Assembly Language Programming
Using 6502 Assembly Language
6502 Machine Code for Humans
Programming the 65816 including the 6502, 65C02 and the 65802
Programming the 65816 including the 6502, 65C02 and the 65802
Forth Programming
Programming the 65816
Programming and Interfacing the 6502 with Experiments
Synertek 1981-1982 Data Catalog
Synertek DataBook 1983
Third Book of OSI
TSC 6502 Games Package 1
TV Typewrite Cookbook
Zaks 6502 Anwendungen
6502 Games
6502 Applications
Advanced 6502 Programming
Fortgeschrittene 6502 Programmierung
Programmierung des 6502
Programming the 6502
6502 Applications book
Programmeren van de 6502
Microprocessor Interfacing Techniques
Microprocessor Concepts and Applications
Publisher: Lab-Volt
6502 Assembler-Kurs für Beginner
6502 Machine Code For Beginners
A low-lvel language for use on the MOS 6502 Microcomputer
6502 Microcomputer Programmierung
Programmieren in Maschinensprache 6502
The Giant Handbook of Computer Projects
First Book of KIM
The First Book of KIM-1 in PDF format
The First Book of KIM-1, part in text format
The First Book of KIM-1 in HTML format
Sources of The First Book of KIM-1 in source and papertape format, Jeff Tranter
First Book of KIM-1 for SYM-1
Rockwell Produktübersicht in deutsch
Rockwell Microelectronic Data Devices Catalog 1979
1981 Rockwell Electronic Devices Division Data Book
1984 Rockwell Data Book
1985 Rockwell Data Book
1987 Rockwell Controller Products Databook

Commodore Chessmate: a 6530 computer

The Chessmate is a 6530 – KIM-1 like computer. Keyboard, LED display are used as in the KIM-1. Peter Jennings, who designed this chess computer with Commodore, build upon his Microchess 1. from the KIM-1, and used the extra ROM space to enhance it to Microchess 1.5: more chess features, a chess clock, sounds, dedicated keys, status LEDs.

The 6530-024 delivers the I/O and timer and RAM used by the Chessmate, the RRIOT ROM is not used by the main ROM. The dumped ROM of the 6530 (see below) contains no recognizable data or program,

It will not be that difficult to ‘clone’ this chess computer with the information here. A 6532 can easily take the role of the 6530. A 6502 instead of a 6504, same SRAM< a 2732 or similar ROM. The ROMs  are dumped, both for an Chessmate and a Novag Chess Champion MK I

Schematic, user manual, dumped ROMs here.

KIM-1 Simulator Version 1.0

KIM-1 Simulator Version 1.0, out of beta, all planned functionality implemented. Console has now ANSI color mode subset implemented.

Atari 850 interface: 6507 + 2 6532

Though this site is not about home computer systems, but about small SBC’s, it is nevertheless interesting to look at the Atari 850 system.
Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to provide access to devices complying with two important interface standards of the time, RS-232-C serial and Centronics parallel.
Four serial interfaces, one parallel interface in self contained case, with its own power supply. Connected to the Atari via the standard SIO cable.

When you look into the system you discover it is actually a simple microprocessor system. The heart is a 6507 CPU, the serial and parallel lines are built with two 6532 IC’s, a ROM with the software.Serial interfaces and the 6532? This means bit banging.So this fits well in the theme of small SBCs!

Atari 850 interface: 6507 + 2 6532

Though this site is not about home computer systems, but about small SBC’s, it is nevertheless interesting to look at the Atari 850 system.
Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to provide access to devices complying with two important interface standards of the time, RS-232-C serial and Centronics parallel.
Four serial interfaces, one parallel interface in self contained case, with its own power supply. Connected to the Atari via the standard SIO cable.

When you look into the system you discover it is actually a simple microprocessor system. The heart is a 6507 CPU, the serial and parallel lines are built with two 6532 IC’s, a ROM with the software.
Serial interfaces and the 6532? This means bit banging.
So this fits well in the theme of small SBCs!

I show you here the circuit diagram, operator, service and technical manual and the sources/binaries of the ROM.

Circuit diagram
Atari 850 interface Module Operator Manual
Atari 850 interface Module Technical Manual
Atari 850 interface Module Service Manual
Sources and binaries of the 850 ROM
Parts list page 1, 2

While the Atari's SIO and controller ports did not conform to established
industry standards, Atari produced the 850 Interface Module to provide access
to devices complying with two important interface standards of the time,
RS-232-C serial and Centronics parallel.

RS-232-C Serial Interface
-------------------------
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) introduced the RS-232 standard,
entitled &quot;Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Circuit-
Terminating Equipment (DCE) Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange,&quot; in 1960
in an effort to standardize the interface between DTE (usually a terminal or a
computer emulating a terminal) and DCE (usually a modem).  Although emphasis
then was placed on interfacing between a modem unit and DTE, other
applications for the standard gained popularity.  Early versions of the EIA
232 standard included RS-232 (1960), RS-232-A (1963), and RS-232-B (1965).
From 1969-1987, including most of the time of the 8-bit Atari, the standard
was formally known as EIA RS-232-C.  Revisions since then have included EIA-
232-D (1987), EIA/TIA-232-E (1991), and the current version from the
Telecommunications Industry Association, EIA/TIA-232-F (1997), known as of
2011 as TIA-232-F.  Especially in the 1980s, 232 was widely adopted for low-
cost serial connections between the DTE and peripherals such as an external
modem, mouse, plotter, printer, scanner, digitizer, track ball, and myriad
others.  In more recent years TIA-232-F has essentially been supplanted by
USB.  In keeping with the context of the time period, this FAQ will normally
refer to the 232 standard as RS-232-C.  

The Atari 850 interface connects to the SIO port on the Atari computer and
provides the system with:

- Four serial interface ports (RS-232-C)
- One 8-bit parallel output interface port (Centronics)

Serial interface port key features:
- The 850 functions as RS-232-C Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).
- RS-232-C Circuits (signaling lines):
                 (Send / Out)  | (Receive / In)
       Port 1:   XMT, DTR, RTS | RCV, DSR, CTS, CRX
       Port 2:   XMT, DTR      | RCV, DSR
       Port 3:   XMT, DTR      | RCV, DSR
       Port 4:   XMT           | RCV
- Port 4 primarily serves as a 20 mA current loop interface, supporting
  20 mA current loop peripherals such as a teletype machine.
- Baud rates:
    45.5 bit/s*, 50 bit/s*, 56.875 bit/s*, 75 bit/s**, 110 bit/s, 134.5 bit/s,
    150 bit/s, 300 bit/s, 600 bit/s, 1200 bit/s, 1800 bit/s, 2400 bit/s, 
    4800 bit/s, 9600 bit/s
  * These baud rates are useful for communications with Baudot teletypes, for
    RTTY (radioteletype) applications.  They are more commonly referred to as
    60, 67, and 75 words per minute.
 ** This baud rate is sometimes used for ASCII communications, and may also
    be used for 5-bit Baudot RTTY.  The latter is commonly referred to as
    100 words per minute.

The Atari Operating System does not include a resident device handler for the
serial ports of the 850, but the 850 contains an R: handler, supporting
devices R1: through R4:, in its ROM.  
   - Bootstrap without disk drive-- With no powered disk drive #1 present, the
     R: handler loads from the ROM of a powered 850 into computer RAM on 
     system startup.  (The 850 masquerades as disk drive #1, responding to the
     Atari OS attempt to boot from disk.)  An extended beep is emitted through
     the computer's audio signal as the handler is loaded.
   - Bootstrap with disk drive-- The R: handler can be loaded from the
     850 ROM as part of a Disk Boot.  (Atari DOS 2.0S, DOS 3, DOS 2.5, and 
     DOS XE include provisions for this.)
   - The R: handler can be loaded from the 850 ROM by software after system 
     boot.
Many alternatives to the 850 ROM R: handler have been developed.  Please see a
separate section of this FAQ list regarding R: and T: device handlers for the
850 for more details.

The Atari Operating System's resident P: Printer device handler supports the
parallel output interface port of the 850.
- 400/800 OS: Responds to P: and ignores any device number
    XL OS: Responds to P:, P1:, and P2:

PINOUTS
=======
Serial Interface Port 1 (DE-9 Socket - female):
                1. DTR Data Terminal Ready (Out)
                2. CRX Carrier Detect      (In)
  5         1   3. XMT Send Data           (Out)
   o o o o o    4. RCV Receive Data        (In)
    o o o o     5. Signal Ground
   9       6    6. DSR Data Set Ready      (In)
                7. RTS Request to Send     (Out)
                8. CTS Clear to Send       (In)

Serial Interface Port 2 (DE-9 Socket - female):
  5         1   1. DTR Data Terminal Ready (Out)
   o o o o o    3. XMT Send Data           (Out)
    o o o o     4. RCV Receive Data        (In)
   9       6    5. Signal Ground
                6. DSR Data Set Ready      (In)

Serial Interface Port 3 (DE-9 Socket - female):
  5         1   1. DTR Data Terminal Ready (Out)
   o o o o o    3. XMT Send Data           (Out)
    o o o o     4. RCV Receive Data        (In)
   9       6    5. Signal Ground
                6. DSR Data Set Ready      (In)

Serial Interface Port 4 (DE-9 Socket - female):
                        / 20 mA Current Loop Operation
                1. +10V / TXD+ Send Data +
  5         1   3. XMT  / TXD- Send Data - (Out)
   o o o o o    4. RCV    Receive Data     (In) --+  A 20 mA current loop
    o o o o     5. Ground                         |  device must tie together
   9       6    7. +10V / RXD+ Receive Data +   --+  pins 4 and 7.
                9. -8V  / RXD- Receive Data -

Parallel Interface Port (DA-15 Socket - female):
                     1. /Data Strobe
                     2. Data bit 0
                     3. Data bit 1
 8               1   4. Data bit 2
  o o o o o o o o    5. Data bit 3
   o o o o o o o     6. Data bit 4
  15            9    7. Data bit 5
                     8. Data bit 6
                     9. Data Pins Pull-Up (+5V)--+ A device that cannot hold
                     11. Signal Ground           | /Fault high may instead tie
                     12. /Fault (high required)--+ together pins 12 and 9.
                     13. Busy
                     15. Data bit 7

Prototype 850 units are in an all-black brushed steel case, but production
units are in a beige plastic case matching the 400/800 computers.

Front of unit (left-to-right):
 - Power In jack
 - On power indicator light
 - Power Off / On switch
 - Two I/O Connectors (Atari SIO)
Right side of unit:
 - Parallel Interface port
Rear of unit (left-to-right):
 - Four Serial Interface ports, 4 - 3 - 2 - 1

850 internals:
 - 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent), C010745
 - 6532 PIA.  Two of: 
    - MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent, C010750
 - 4KiB X 8 Bit ROM, C012099

Manuals:
- Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C015953 Rev. 1 1980
  (preliminary version shipped with earlier/most 850 units; 102 pages)
- Atari 850 Interface Module Operator's Manual C017651 REV. B 1982 (15 pages)
- Atari 850 Interface Module Technical Manual C017652 REV. B 1982 (106 pages)
- Atari 850 Interface Module Field Service Manual
   - CS 400/800-S004-B 4/81
   - FD100036 April, 1981

Power: Used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power supply rated for at
least 17 watts: Atari CA014748 or equivalent.

The 850 was designed by R. Scott Scheiman at Atari, 

The 850 was alo sold as bareboard with a parts list


post

6530-6532

Information on this page:
Datasheets 653x
Known 6530 variants
6530 replacement for Commodore drives
6530 replacement in the KIM-1 clone and Micro-KIM
6530 replacement 6530 in KIM-1
Commodore Chessmate, Novag II, TEC6530 replacement in the Gottlieb soundsystems, the MIOT
Read out a 6530-009 with a KIM-1 clone

The 6530, nick named RRIOT is quite a special IC in the 65xx family.
Timer, RAM (64 byte), ROM, I/O, Counter in one IC. It has a factory mask programmed ROM and the locations of its I/O and RAM and ROM are determined also in the factory.
The 6530 is found in among others the KIM-1 (6530 02, 6530 03), a Chess system with MicroChess by Peter Jennings (6530 24) and variants are used in Commodore disk drives.

The 6532 has no ROM and RAM size is 128 byte versus 64 in 6530. I/O and timer are functional identical to the 6530. The nickname is RIOT, and it is a general purpose I/O device in the 6502 family. Very popular in e.g. the Atari 2600, and many clone KIM-1’s.

There is a datasheet for an IC called the 6531, RRIOC for RAM ROM I/O Counter. I have never seen it in the wild though, but seen references to pinball machines using it.
6530
6530
6530
6530

6530 002 0278
6530 011 7925
6530 003 0680
6530 002 0880
r6530 005p small
6530

A mistery 6530, 021 unknown sofar.

Datasheets

The 6530 was produced by most 6502 manufactures, from MOS Technology/Commodore SG to Rockwell and Synertek. All production datasheets that I have seen afaik identical, here I present some clean Rockwell datasheets. The first one is a preliminary MOS datasheet for the MCS6530, missing the ordering pages of the production version.
MOS Technology preliminary MCS6530
Rockwell 6530 RRIOT
6531 RRIOC
6532 RIOT
How to avoid timer interrupts during reset of the 6502

MOS 6530 RRIOT
6530 Rockwell
6531 RRIOC
6532 RIOT

A CMOS version, the 65C32 exists, here a page from the 1983 Synertek Databook.

Known 6530 variants

6530-002 KIM-1 listing in KIM-1 Users manual
6530-003 KIM-1 listing in KIM-1 Users manual
6530-004 TIM Terminal Monitor, see the TIM page
6530-005 According this OSI appnote this is an unprogrammed version of the 6530 TIM. I have also seen ads for this part without further description of what this is.
It has the 16 I/O lines, 64 word RAM and the timer, which can generate an IRQ. One can assume the ROM is empty.

6530-006 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC6)
6530-007 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC3)
6530-008 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC5)
6530-009 Allied Leisure pinball (IC5)
6530-010 Allied Leisure pinball (IC6)
6530-011 Allied Leisure / Fascination pinball (IC3)

6530-013 Used in the CBM 2040/3040/4040 disk drive DOS 1.0
6530-014 used in the Gottlieb System 1 sound boards
6530-016 Used in Gottlieb system 80/80A/80B sound boards

6530-024 Commodore Chessmate (based upon Peter Jennings MicroChess)

6530-241 MIOT in pinball machines
6530-243 MIOT in pinball machines

Commodore diskdrives

901466-01 6530-??? DOS 1.0 Shugart SA390 2040, 3040 and 4040
901466-02 6530-028 DOS 1.2 Shugart SA390 2040, 3040 and 4040
901466-04 6530-034 DOS 2.0 DOS 2.1 Shugart SA390
901483-02 6530-036 DOS 2.5
901483-03 6530-038 DOS 2.5 Micropolis 1006-II (8050)
901483-04 6530-039 DOS 2.5 Tandon TM100-3M (8050)
901884-01 6530-040 DOS 2.7 Tandon TM100-3M (8050) Tandon TM100-4M (8250)
901885-01 6530-044 DOS 2.7 Micropolis ???
901885-04 6530-047 DOS 2.7 Micropolis 1006-II (8050) Micropolis 1006-IV (8250) Micropolis 1106-II (Safari, mit Garagentor, 8050) Micropolis 1106-IV (Safari, mit Garagentor, 8250)
901869-01 6530-048 DOS 2.7 M.P.I. 101SM (8050)M.P.I. 102?? (8250)
251256-02 6530-050 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570-2 (8250LP)
251257-02A 2716 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570 (SFD-1001) Matsushita JU-570-2 (SFD-1001)
251474-01B 2716 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570-2 (8250LP)

Via an adapter board Commodore reused older 6530’s with new firmware by disabling the built in ROM and adding a 2716.
See Zimmers Commodore archive. Note that not just any 6530 can be used in this way, only the 6530’s from the Commodore diskdrives. A more general approach with a 6532 is described below.

A similar hack is replacing a non-functional KIM 6530 with a 6532, a 2716 and some glue logic: Gilbert Coville) http://gc.org/rc2011sc/ and http://gc.org/rc2012ww/

Micro-KIM

The Micro-KIM, see the whole story here,  is another variant of a KIM-1 with the original ROMS and 6532 instead of 6530.

See the complete circuit (version 2009!) here.


Use a KIM-1 (clone) to read out a 6530-009

TODO: add 6530-009 rom bin and assembly