KIM-1 Magazines

A page devoted to magazines that paid much attention to the KIM-1.

The first two magazines are of dutch origin, in which I was a major contributor and (chief) editor.

KIM/6502 Kenner

The KIM/6502 Kenner magazine, published by the dutch KIM user Club, has of course many articles on the KIM-1.
I contributed many articles and was (chief) editor of issue 10 to 25.
Here the indexed archive.

Radio Bulletin

From 1977 to 1986 Radio Bulletin published many articles written by me and others about the KIM-1.
Here the archive of relevant articles.

MICRO The 6502 Journal

Published by Robert M. Tripp, The Computerist
Published from 1977 tot 1983. The first years many KIM-1/SYM-1/AIM-65 articles, slowly faded to Apple Atari etc in later years, and ended in 1984.
The whole archive is here.


A magazine devoted mostly to 6502 computers. Apart from the Compute II period, before and afterwards also the small SBCs like IM-1 got attention of Compute!
Nearly all of Compute! lives here.
The Internet archive has all issues

Compute II

Compute II was a short lived split-off of Compute! and also a continuation of the KIM-1/6502 User Notes. Three issues and it was merged back with Compute! again.

HTML version of Issue 1
PDF of Compute II Issue 1
HTML version of Issue 2
PDF of Compute II Issue 2
HTML version of Issue 3
PDF of Compute II Issue 3

KIM-1/6502 User Notes

KIM-1/6502 User Notes is a publication about the KIM-1, slowly evolving to other 6502 systems like SYM-1 and AIM 65.
Editor was the famous Eric Rehnke. After issue 17 it merged with Compute II.

          KIM-1 / 6502 USER NOTES INDEX BY SUBJECT VOLUME 1(Issues 1 till 6)

Application suggestions   1        Correction To Memory Map -------- 2
Calculator--Interface     4        Defective 6502 chips------------- 3
            Interface     6        Discussion of Memory Allocation - 5
          --T.I.5050      5        DISPLAY (on board)
Chess Clock Program       4           red filter for-----------------5
CONTROLLING                      Use of------------------------------1,5
 --- Function Generator   1        EXPANSION OF SYSTEM
 --- Light Intensity      4           KIMSI--------------------------4
 --- Motor Speed          4           MEMORY
 --- Touch tone encoder   1            Adding memory to KIM-1--------5
Degree Dispatch Computer  5            Diagnostic------------------- 2,5
Frequency Counter         3            Expansion---------------------4,3
                                  OSI Memory-------------------------3
GAMES                             Using SD Sales 4K RAM Board        3
  Bagels----------------- 5       Hardware tips
  Battleship--------------6          Packaging KIM-1 --------------- 6,3
  Horserace-------------- 3          Power Supply for KIM ---------- 4
  Hunt the Wampus-------- 2          Red Filter for Display----------5
  Jotto------------------ 5       INTERVAL TIMERS :
  Kimmaze---------------- 4          The Other Timer-----------------2
  Microchess------------- 3          and cassette                    2
  Mastermind------------- 5          Use Of--------------------------5,5
  Moon Lander-----------1,3       MIKIM------------------------------5
HEDEX Program             1       OPERATION TIPS
MATH TEST Program         4          Using SST  ---------------------2
Mini-l Loran-c            6          Using ST   to start programs----4
MUSIC:KlugeHarp     3,2,6,6       Page 1 Programming Problems--------6
Real Time Clock        4, 5       Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
Square wave generator     5       Power Supply-----------------------4
Stopwatch Program         2       Presetting 00F1, 00F2              4
Telephone Dialer        4,4         System Architecture              3
                                  Packaging your KIM-1---------------3
CASSETTE PROBLEMS/SUGGESTIONS     Presetting 00F1, 00F2              4
Certification of tape     6       System Architecture                3
Copying Cassette tape     3       TABLES for KIM-1
Fast tape problems        6          Interval Timer Table------------3
Hypertape               2,6           Relative Branch table----------2
Interval timer/cassette   1          OP Code table-------------------4
Notes on cassette         6       Techniques
PLL set program           5          Mnemonic Improvement------------41
PROBLEMS with Cassette    3                   BIT Data---------------41
Software control of tape         Top Down Programming                4
  reading                 4      Modifications/ IMPROVEMENTS
Speed up                  4         Crystal Stabilization------------5
Supertape                 2         Factory Mods. -------------------4
Supertape improvement     4         6502 Register Monitor Apparatus  4
Tape Certifying           6         74Ls145 ------------------------ 3,4
Tape Dupe                 4      6502 Microprocessor Board-----------6
Using Cassette            6         POWER ON RESET CIRCUIT           3
Varification of Data      4         NOTES FROM THE FACTORY           5
Vutape                    2      

                         INDEX Issue 13
SOFTWARE FEATURE                                                         1
     KIM Hexpawn (your KIM can learn to win)        Robert C. Leedon

6502 OP CODES (arranged logically for easy look up) Jim Butterfield      6

CASSETTE INTERFACE STUFF                                                 7
     Tape Verify II                                 Dr. Barry Tepperman
     Radio Tape Feedback                            Daniel Gardner
     Reliability Hint                               John Watney
     Help Relay Package Fixit                       Mike Firth
     Tape File Recovery Routine                     Loel Swank
     KIM Software On Cassette

LANGUAGE LAB                                                             10
          I/O Mods                                  Editor
          Functions                                 Editor

          I/O Mods                                  Marvin De Jong
          A Basic Question                          Editor
          Basic Timing Comments                     F. E. Kempisty
          KIM Basic Hint                            Micro-Z Company
          Basic Renumber Program                    Harvey Herman

     Tiny Basic
          Two Tiny Basic Mods                       Michael Day
          Ramblings About T.B.                      Lew Edwards

          Forth Comments Example                   John P. Oliver

          Two Pass Patch To Aresco Assembler        John Eaton
          Mods To MSS Assembler                     Richard M. Bender

DESSIGN CORNER                                                           16
     A 6522 I/O Board

KIM-4 BUS PINOUT                                                         18

VIDEO  GRAPHICS                                                          19
     Video Displays                                 Editor
     Comments On Visible Memory                     Lew Edwards
     TVT-6 Adventure                                Dennis Chaput
     TVT-6 RAM Expansion                            Michael Allen
     Polymorphics Video Board Mods                  Editor

DEBUG                                                                    21
     Slow Stepper IV                                Lew Edwards

LETTERS  COMMENTS                                                        22

     Multi-Mode Adder                               Jim Butterfield
     Pseudo-Random Number Generator                 H. T. Gordon
     ASCII Dump Program                             Jim Zuber
     Keyboard Debounce Routine                      Thomas J. Rubens
     Sound Effects Program                          Bob Carlson
     Melodies For The Music Box                     Douglas Lyon
     'Do Loops'; For KIM                            Dave Skillman

INTERFACE                                                                26
     Camera Speed Tester                            Mike Firth
     Low-Cost Modem Possibility                     Editor
     RPN Calculator Chip Interface                  Editor
     Power-On Reset                                 George Hawkins
     The Outside World Connection                   Editor
     More On The Opto-Isolator                      Dwight Egbert

NEW PRODUCTS                                                             28
     Video Driver Package
     Price Decrease On Jolt Boards
     A 8080 Simulator For The 6502
     Eprom Programmer

                         INDEX Issue 14

SOFTWARE FEATURES                                                         1
     KIM BANNER PROGRAM                             JIM ZUBER
     CHECK-OUT                                      ROBERT LARRABEE

LANGUAGE LAB                                                             12
          OUTPUT PAGING MOD                         DICK GRABOWSKY
          A NEW COMMAND                             DICK GRABOWSKY
          'USR' FUNCTION INFO                       C. KINGSTON

SYM SECTION                                                              18
     ACCESSING THE SYM DISPLAYS                     A.M. MACKAY
     WUMPUS   MUSIC BOX MODS                        JIM ADAMS

AIM SECTION                                                              19
     MANUAL CORRECTIONS                             JODY NELIS

VIDEO   TVT-6                                                            23
     TVT-6 NOTES & RAM EXPANSION                    MILAN MERHAR

CASSETTE STUFF                                                           25
     MAKE A SHORT CASSETTE                          TED BEACH

KIM-1 User Notes Volume 0, July 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 1, September 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 1, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 2, November 1976
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 2, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 3, Januari 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 3, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 4, March 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 4, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 5 May 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 5 May 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 6, July 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 6, other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 7/8, September November 1977
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 7/8, Other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 9/10 January March 1978
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 9/10 other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 11 May 78
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 11 other version
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 12
KIM-1/6502 User Notes Volume 12 other version
6502 User Notes Volume 13
6502 User Notes Volume 13. incomplete other version
6502 User Notes Volume 14
6502 User Notes Volume 15
6502 User Notes Volume 16
6502 User Notes Volume 17

PC utilities for 6502 KIM-1

Updated December 2020, Linux compilation checked, bugs fixed, online program for comverting binary to wave file.

To aid in the handling of KIM-1 program and dataformats I have written some programs for Windows and Linux (Raspbian), sources included.

KIM Tape WAV to BIN conversion
Convert 8 bit hex formats
KIMPoser Tape Convert hex to WAV online
KIM Tape Convert BIN and BIN to WAV
KIM-1 simulator
Pascal-M cross compiler

All programs come with source (Free Pascal Lazarus), compiled for Windows but thanks to Freepascal and Lazarus also compiled and tested on Linux (Ubuntu and Raspberry PI OS).

Convert 8 bit hex formats

A general purpose utility to convert common 8 bit hex and binary formats, such as Intel HEX, Motorola S records, MOS Papertape, hex format, and binary files.

source files (Freepascal Lazarus).
Convert8bithexformat Setup for Windows, Executables for Ubuntu and Raspberry PI OS
Available formats:
– BIN binary, raw data, no formatting, no information on start address.
– HEX formatted as hex numbers raw data, no start address included.
– IHEX Intel hex 8 bit format, multiple memory block, start address included.
– PAP MOS Technology papertape format, multiple memory blocks, start address included.
– SREC Motorola 8 bit S record, contiguous memory block, start address included.
– A1hex Apple Woz monitor hex format, start address included.
– KIM Tape as used in the KIM-1 Simulator as emulation of audio tape files.

KIM-1 simulator

6502/65C02 CPU emulation, disassembler, TTY, KIM-1 keypad and LEDs.

See the KIM-1 Simulator page for more information.

KIM Paper

Note that the Conver8bitHexFormat program is also capable of converting to and from Papertape format from many more formats.
Originally written for the launch of the MicroKIM, an older version is on the support CD.

When you attach a serial device like the teletype or a modern PC with Hyperterminal you can use the TIM monitor of the KIM-1. One of the functions is loading from and saving to a papertape device on the teletype. Now since this is a way to load and save data as a textfile this is in fact quite useful.
The Micro-KIM triggered me to modernize my conversion utility for MOS Technology papertape format dating from 1983, VAX/VMS and Turbo Pascal. A Windows and a commandline/console version are available.

KIMPAPER for Windows

A program for Windows to convert between papertape and binary format.

Windows setup KIMPAPER
Sources (Freepascal Lazarus, build also on Linux)


Not too modern, but handy, a commandline utility. Does exactly the same as the Windows program KIMPAPER. Runs fine in a commandline DOS box. Can also be compiled for Linux with Freepascal. In the KIMPAPER DOS archive the program, source and information on the program and papertape format can be found.

KIM-1 MOS Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1

Syntax is:
KIMPAPER [-[b|p] filename [startaddress]
C:\MICROKIM\kimpaper -h
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Syntax is: KIMPAPER [-[b|p|h] filename [startaddress] first parameter switches
-h help
-p convert to papertape
-b convert to binary
second parameter (first if no parameters, assumed binary to papertape)
name of file to convert
.BIN for binary, forces conversion to PAPertape
.PAP for papertape, forces conversion to BINary
third parameter (assumed 0000 if not present)
startaddress for BIN to papertape conversion
Files of type .BIN wil force conversion to papertape.PAP
Files of type .PAP wil force conversion to binary .BIN

C:\MICROKIM\kimpaper mastermind.bin 0200
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
C:\MICROKIM>kimpaper mastermind.pap
KIM-1 Mos Technology BIN papertape format conversion utility, Hans Otten, 2007 v1.1
Start address 0200 in file mastermind.BIN

Convert KIM tape to text

KIM Tape to Text is a utility to convert between binary format of a KIM-1 tape dump to a DOS text file.
The KIM tape dump is a binary file and is just a dump of part of the memory of the KIM-1.
This binary file can be a text file as used in editors Micro Ade or CW Assm/TED.
By using the tape write routine in the KIM-1 one can write an audio file on cassette.
When this audio file is captured on a PC as WAV file (22K, mono) this can be converted back to a binary memory dump with ED’s Utility KIMTape
These text files can be converted to DOS text files with this utility.

First open the binary file. If this is recognized as Micro Ade or CW Moser format, the Save as text file can be used.

Windows program.
Full source for Freepascal and Lazarus, no Windows dependencies. Compiled on 64 bits Windows 10 as 32 bit application.

Note on detection of assembler editor type
1. Micro Ade file must start with CR: when present this is Micro Ade
line nr follows 2 byte
line ends with $0D
file ends with $40
2. Assm/Ted by CW Moser starts with line number $10 $00
end of line is high bit set
There may be rare situations that a file starts with a $0D or a different line nr. You can force CW Mose detection by changing this to a sequence of $10 $00 $0D and if necessary blanks $20 to make it consistent. If in doubts: use an editor that shows the file in hex (Ultra Edit, or the free Notepad ++, Text editor PRO) and study the tape file.

Methods to get the binary file out of a Junior or KIM-1.
Read the record tape into a binary with Ed’s KIMTAPE conversion *see below). It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS ( or DOsbox (slow).
Make a note of start address as shown by KIMTAPE.
Non-printing ASCII characters are filtered out of the resulting text file.

KIM Tape Convert WAV to BIN and BIN to WAV

Not my program, but so handy!

KIMTAPE v0.5 – tape conversion utility for KIM-1 and SYM-1 (2004-05-17) Local copy of

KIMTAPE allows programs stored on cassette tape to be decoded to a program file. It handles both MOS Technology KIM-1 and Synertek SYM-1 tape formats including HYPERTAPE. The reverse process – converting a program file to an audio wavefile is also possible, allowing one to produce perfectly regenerated cassettes. KIMTAPE works with 8-bit mono WAV, VOC or RAW audio files recorded
at 22050 samples per second.

Download: (MS-DOS) It is MS-DOS and runs fine in VDOS ( or DOSbox (slow).

The binary files in the KIM-1 program archives have been reproduced, from the original cassette recordings, with the tool KIMTAPE on a PC in a DOS box. See Eds DX-Forth and Utilities Page for this and other nice programs.
This program also makes it possible to reproduce the original cassette recordings that can be read by a KIM-1.

The files were made as follows: The KIM-1 cassette audio was connected to the PC audio input and (with e.g. Audacity) recorded as a wave file (mono 22KHz).
For example: qchess.wav
The wave file was then converted with KIMTAPE to a binary file (the exact content of of the KIM-1 memory when recorded).
And the KIMTAPE utility then displays load address (for example and tape ID

c:\kimtape qchess.wav qchess.bin
KIMTAPE version 0.5 17-May-04
infile: qchess.wav
outfile: qchess.BIN
Program 01 address 0200 checksum OK xxxx bytes done

This .bin file (any extension is fine!) is NOT a wave file! It contains the exact content of the KIM-1 memory when recorded. The size is exactly the number of bytes as stored in the memory of the KIM-1 and much smaller than the wave file. This binary file can be converted back to a wave file with KIMTAPE or converted to a papertape file with KIMPAPER:

C:\kimtape -M -A0200 -D01 -B2 qchess.bin qchess.wav 

As you can see: you have to specify the load address and the program ID. The B parameter indicates hypertape speed (2 here, slow)
The resulting wav file should be acceptable for the KIM-1. It is (as I have tested) acceptable as input for KIMTAPE!

All command parameters can be seen by typing KIMTAPE without parameters:

Pascal-M Cross compiler

Executables of cross compiler, workflow, sources, command line utilities.


My other KIM-1 systems

Over the years many KIM-1s were bought by me and sold also. In good and bad condition!

KIM-1 owned by Dirk Dral


My first KIM-1

In 1978 I bought my first computer, a KIM-1. It turned out to be a Rockwell rebadged Rev F Mos Technology board.

The beginning of lots of fun, learning, member of the KIM gg Club and making and publishing in the dutch electronics magazine Radio Bulletin and the KIM Kenner.

In 2014 the big KIM-1 machine was finally taken down in parts, the following photos showed the end result as in 1985 after many years of tinkering.

The KIM-1 system ended as a real production system until 1985, mainly to write articles, all Radio Bulletin and KIM Club Magazine related work was done with this system.
Then a CP/M machine took over (a Spectravideo X’Press 738) with the same VT100 as terminal.

  • KIM-1
  • 8K RAM  in system case
  • 32K RAM in expansion case
  • Two ACIA 6850 serial system
  • A PIA/VIA card with two 6820 PIA’s
  • Parallel ASCII keyboard with home made logic circuit
  • Video Display 32×32 uppercase characters on an analog TV
  • Dual cassette tape system with motor control
  • MDCR digtal cassette system in second expansion case
  • Radio Grafisch Display in second expansion case
  • Heathkit H14 matrix pinter
  • VT100 Digital Equipment Video display unit
  • Boot tape to load device drivers and Micro Ade (extended to 8K)
  • Micro Ade editor, used for program development and article authoring
  • Microsoft Basic KB-9 (not used often)
  • Pascal-M compiler and interpreter (mainly development and experiments, not production quality)

First the KIM-1, I still have it, in working condition, in my private museum. Changes still visible, are a red acryl cover over the LED displays, a capacitor moved to the back to make it flat enough to fit the case I made and some supports to have it lay stable and safe on a table.

Why a KIM-1?

In 1977 I was reading in the electronics magazines about the revolution taking place: 8 bit microprocessors!
During my study I encountered Digital Equipment machines, PDP-8 in the lab, PDP-11 in the Mathematic Computer Science department, a Minc in Medical Physics group, my major.
The electronics department where I was doing an intern not only introduced to digital electronics and I helped them to introduce the Z80 to the instruments designed for laboratory experiments.
I learned assembler quickly, PDP-11 was a dream come true, the Z80 a bit of a nightmare but you could do so much with effort.

At the same time I started to write for the magazine Radio Bulletin, simple analog and digital circuits and continued to be an editor until 1987. I met Dick de Boer who was writing his famous Microprocessor articles and introduced the KIM-1 to the Dutch electronic engineers. So a KIM-1 with the very attractive 6502 was the logical choice for my first microprocessor system.

First case: memory, connectors, power supply

A KIM-1 itself was fun to learn with, but it quickly needed more; a permanent power supply, protection, easy to access connectors and interfaces for  a bus to have  more memory.

So the case seen in the next figure was built:

Power hungry, so lots of lineair power supplies with large cooling.

The first case I built from alu profiles contained the KIM-1, a backplane for 6 memory boards, a lot of power supplies (lineair, so heat was a problem!), a patch panel to access the expansion connector, cassette I/O, serial interface and various switches.

PCBs handmade, double sided!

Memory 2K RAM Card, BEM Bus Brutech Variant made by Hans Otten
Memory boards were made myself by drawing with Edding ink on the blank PCB, etching and drilling. Filled with 2102 RAM IC’s for 1K per board, it filled lower RAM of the KIM-1 $0400 – $13FF. The bus is a 31 pin DIN connector, based upon the BEM (Brutech) bus.

The next thing I built was a video display unit. All TTL 74XX logic IC’s, a 2513 character generator, a AY-5-1013 character generator, an ASCII keyboard, display on TV 32×32 characters uppercase. RS232 input/output to the KIM-1.
On top of the VDU a dual cassette deck is shown. From the famous Dutch dump shop Radio Service Twente two audio cassette decks were bought, some audio amplifiers and power supply added, and a remote control circuit via a 6532 GPIO line (standard as in Micro Ade). Served me well for many years, in 2014 the decks strings were dried out and crumbled after many years of not being used.

Next was a real expansion cabinet with a long backplane for 32K memory with 8x 4K RAM card, 2114 based, Designed by me, published in Radio Bulletin and sold by Visser Assembling Electronics. BEM bus compatible.

4K SRAM card

4K SRAM card, Radio Bulletin September 1979 part 1  part 2

Production 4K RAM card

Prototype 4K RAM card, also hand drawn on the PCB!

In the expansion cabinet three slots were added for I/O. Two cards were designed by me and published in Radio Bulletin: an ACIA card for two 6850 Motorola ICs, and a PIA card for two PIAs, 6522 or 6520 or 6820 or 6821. I never used more than one ACIA and one PIA card. Shown are the prototype cards, in the article production quality PCBs were used.

PIA and VIA card design by Hans Otten June 1984 Radio Bulletin

ACIA Motorola 6850 by Hans Otten, 1983 Radio Bulletin

On one of the ACIAs a VT100 Digital Equipment terminal was connected, taking over from the bit banged serial interface and the homebuilt video display. ON the other ACIA a Heathkit H14 matrix printer was added, a mediocre but adequate printer.

Together with Micro Ade as assembler and editor, the dual cassette deck, 40K RAM In total, this was a nice machine! Until 1987, when I bought the Spectravideo X’Press 738 MSX and CP/M system, used for all my publishing activities.

A third expansion cabinet was built around 1983. It was driven by the PIA’s, the Radio Bulletin Grafisch Display was inside the cabinet, along with two MDCR Philips Digital cassette recorders, alo published in Radio Bulletin. The speed difference between Hypertape audio cassettes and 2400 baud MDCR speed was not that impressive.

Dirk Dral

EPROM card (Dirk Dral)


KIM-1 Software

On this page my collection of KIM-1 software in binary format , manuals and articles, from my tapes and scanned paper archives and user contributions.
Most require an expanded KIM-1 with RAM memory above $2000, 16K recommended. Of course the Micro-KIM and the Corsham KIM Clone and the PAL-1 with memory expansion have enough horsepower to run this.
See the page for useful programs to convert binaries to papertape etc.
Not all have been tested, some use non-standard TTY I/O routines, so study, test, experiment and have fun!

KB-9 and KB-6 are the name used for the Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1. One of the 6502 family of early interpreters by the then called Micro-soft company. KB stands for KIM Basic, the 6 and 9 for the precison of digits.
See here for the page about the KIM-1 binary versions , articles, listing, sources and build-and-enhance- it-yourself version.

Focal-65 V3D

The FOCAL programming language Version 3D (26 aug 1977) for the KIM-1.

A small interpreter (about 5K) for a convenient interpreted language. Floating point 9 digit accuracy. Two versions were distributed, one by Aresco and another by the Program Exchange. Included was a source listing, which I do not have.
Requires memory from $2000 and up. May have some terminal echo problems, see below in User Notes 13.
Based upon the DEC FOCAL8 language for the PDP-8, as defined in the Manual DEC-08-AJAB-D.
Programmed by the 6502 Group , read here the background of the creation of FOCAL-65.
Program and manual
The scanned manual, Aresco version
Disassembled source by Paul R. Santa-Maria
Introduction to FOCAL (dutch, KIM Kenner) by J. Janssen page 1, page 2 and page 3
Introduction to FOCAL, 6502 User Notes 12
Improve on echo problems with KIM TTY, from 6502 User Notes 13
Make room for enhancements, extend to 8K, from 6502 User Notes 14
Speed it up, from 6502 User Notes 15
Cassette save/write an LED display listing, from 6502 User Notes 16
Move FOCAL 65-E into EPROM page 1, page 2, from Compute II Issue 3


The FORTH language 6502 FIG-FORTH

Binary Forth original, start at 2000
FORTH assembler sources, 6502, 65C02
Fig-FORTH 6502 manual
Fig-FORTH Manuals May 1979

Tiny Basic

Tom Pitman’s Tiny basic. Small enough to fit in th 1K KIM-1, yet a real Basic interpreter

Tiny Basic binaries,
low memory version is tiny3, load address 0000 start address 0200
high memory version is tiny 1 load address 0000 + tiny3 load address 2000, start address 2000
Tiny Basic manual as pdf
Tiny Basic manual as html
Tiny Basic manual as text file
Tiny Basic Experimenters kit as pdf
Tiny Basic Experimenters kit as html
Tiny Basic Experimenters kit as text
Getting the most of Tiny Basic.pdf
Articles on tiny Basic from 6502 User notes
Source of Tiny Basic, monitor, and Tiny Basic Bill O’Neill
Tiny Basic for CC65 assembler sources
Tiny Basic games, such as adventure
Games for Tiny basic from Dr Dobbss Vol 1 Page 1, Page 2
Articles from the dutch KIM user Club:
KIM Kenner 10 Tiny Basic, tips how to save and load and change prompt, Hans Otten.
KIM Kenner 23 Tiny Basic, Filip van Kenhove, adapt to Elektor Junior


COMAL is an interpreted structured language. I have only as original the KIM User Club Elektor Junior version, and as with most of the 6502 SBC programs, not that difficult to adapt to a KIM-1, as shown in the last pages of the manual (in/out/break character, load/save tape, memory layout).
KGN COMAL binary
Manual KGN COMAL (dutch)
COMAL Introduction

MICRO-ADE assembler/editor

Updated November 2021

MICRO-ADE was the working horse for many KIM-1 users, the small and powerful assembler/editor/disassembler written by Peter Jennings, Microware.
Manual and program are placed here with permission by Peter Jennings to the KIM Club (thank you Peter for this and for a great program!)
A letter sent by Anton Muller, KIM User Club the Netherlands, to Peter Jennings, thanks Peter for the scan!

In August 2021 I (Hans Otten) typed in the source of MICRO-Ade from the listing in the manual, the output is binary compatible with the binaries I saved from tape and are tested on the KIM-1.
The result is a source identical (in standard MOS Technology assembler format) to the listing and binary identical to the page image. I also made new high quality scan of the manual and the listing.
Micro Ade program source and binary
Scanned manual
Scanned listing

Read in the KIM KENNER archive the source of the enhancements (text by S.T. Woldringh o.a.)
The KIM club enhanced Micro Ade to version 8. Download here the binary with a 2 page command summary.

Microchess for the KIM-1

Updated November 2021

MICROCHESS for the KIM-1. Another Peter Jennings Microware product. Runs on a standard KIM-1. Control via LED displays and hex keypad. Quite a commercial success, many sold!

Wave files of tape and binaries, dump of my cassette files
Assembler source and binaries, typed in by me in 2021, binary identical to tape
Original manual (from the reseller The Computerist) scanned by me
Original manual by Peter Jennings
Manual in HTML format
Article on upgrading/extending Microchess, Compute II Issue 1, pdf format
Article on upgrading/extending MICROCHESS, Compute II Issue 1, html format
Upgrade/extending assembler source and binaries, typed in by me in 2021
More chess openings, Fer Weber 1978

6502 Macro Assembler and Text Editor CW Moser

CW Moser ASSM/TED Assembler and Text Editor binaries: original, KIM-1, Elektor Junior
Manual scanned in PDF format

Color version of later manual
Dissecting C. W. Moser’s ASSM_TED, Compute! Issue 11
Commodore PET version of the manual
Graphics Drawing Compiler for PET and SYM manual
Fast cassette interface for ASSM/TED by CW Moser
Universal 6502 Memory Test PET, Apple, Sym and Others, Compute! Issue 1

KIM Tape Copy v1.1

kim tape copy v11 KIM Tape Copy v1.1, copy all files on a KIM cassette. Uses two recorders attached as shown in the Micro Ade manual.
Source in Micro Ade format
Listing of Tape Copy

H14 printer and parallel keyboard routine

The Heathkit H14 printer is a simple matrix printer with a serial interface. This routine allows to use this printer via two pins at the free 6530 PIA port, see circuit diagram. Resistors are 2k2 ohm.
H14 printer and parallel keyboard input assembler source
Lsiting and crcuit diagram

Printing disassembler

Printing disassembler, load and start address is $B000
Source of disassembler
Requires a parallel keyboard for character input at the free 6530 PIA port. H14 printer output if print is requested. See above for the H14 printer routine.

Q-Chess for the KIM-1

Q-Chess for the KIM-1. Requires 8K memory and a TVT-6 display. Via ptaching a TTY can be used.
Manual, including TTY patches
Binaries of Q-Chess for TVT-6 and for TTY
Patches on Q-Chess by Fer Weber, De 6502 KENNER 17 – augustus 1981

Usurpator Chess for the 6502

Usurpator Chess for the 6800 and 6502 in 2K, a book by H.G. Muller
The book, with source listings for 6800 and 6502
Source in CW Moser format


Time your reaction. Standard KIM-1 LED display and keypad. Source included.

First Book of KIM sources

The First Book of KIM-1 in PDF format
The First Book of KIM-1, part in text format
The First Book of KIM-1 in HTML format
Sources of The First Book of KIM-1 in source and papertape format,
Jeff Tranter
Software from First Book of KIM in binary, audio (Wave) and papertape format, by Dave Willams.

KIM Venture

A (tiny) Colossal Cave adventure for the KIM-1 by Bob Leedom


HEXPAWN, a game for the KIM-1 by Robert Leedom


Baseball, a game for the KIM-1 by Robert Leedom

Telefonbuch Hobbycomputer #1 Herwig Feichtinger

Telefonbuch Hobbycomputer #1 Herwig Feichtinger


Pascal-M: A full (1978) Pascal P2 descendent compiler system for the KIM-1.
See the School of Wirth pages for more information, including sources and binaries

Pocket calculator for the KIM-1/h3>

Siep de Vries Westvries Computing The Netherlands

1977Simple calculator (integer 6 digits positive) + – / *
I/O via TTY or keypad/LED display, the same method
as used by the KIM-1 monitor.
Two versions (scans included):
a special publication from the first days of the

KIM Club in a traditional 6502 assembler

and a later version for the Micro ADE assembler editor.
Sources included of both versions (TASM 32),

with resulting listing and papertape and Intel hex files.
As close to paper original, changes due to assembler quirks.
Download here Sources, papertape, listings, original scans

KIM-1 manuals

On this page:

– Essential KIM-1 manuals delivered with a KIM-1: User, Programming, Hardware, KIM Hints, most in English, some in German.
– Circuit diagram poster
– Reference cards
– MOS Technology Cross assembler
– First Book of KIM
– Some basic articles

User Manual

User manual in HTML format
User manual in text format
User manual in PDF format (note page 18-25 of the ROM listing is missing)
Appendix with complete ROM listing in PDF format
Corrected page 17 of ROM listing
Revision of Rockwell KIM-1 User’s manual
Customer Errata Letters
Customer Errata Letter 1
Customer Errata Letter 2
Customer Errata Letter 3
Proofreading version of User Manual from Terry Holdt
MOS KIM-1 Handbuch, German version of KIM-1 User manual

Hardware manual

Hardware Manual January 1976 Second Edition Publications Number 6500-10A
Hardware Manual in ASCII format
MCS6500 Hardware Manual jan 1975 in PDF format
MCS6500 Hardware Manual jan 1976 second edition in PDF format
Hardware manual in HTML format
Rockwell 6500 Hardware Manual
MOS 6500 Hardware Handbuch
German version of Hardware manual

Programming manual

High-res quality typeset manual by Pickledlight. Local copy. Check to original for updates!
MCS6500 Microcomputer Family Programming Manual
MCS6500 Microcomputer Family Programming Manual Hardcover
Programming Manual
Programming Manual in PDF format
Programming Manual in HTML format
Programming manual appendix in HTML format
Rockwell 6500 Programming_Manual
MOS Microcomputers Programmier Handbuch,
German version of Programming manual

6502 Reference Cards

6502 Reference Cards collection
MOS Technology Reference Card, better quality, early one, ROR instruction missing, handwritten

MOS Technology Cross assembler

Scan-160408-0001 Cross assembler Manual, GE timeshare

KIM Hints

KIM hints
KIM-1 Hints PDF format
KIM-1 Hints smaller PDF format
KIM-1 Hints in text format
KIM-1 Hints in text format with additions and corrections

Circuit diagram poster

KIM-1 circuit diagram
Rockwell branded circuit diagram
KIM-1 poster in high resolution, large picture!
Redrawn KIM-1 circuit diagram

First Book of KIM

First Book of KIM
The First Book of KIM-1 in PDF format
The First Book of KIM-1, part in text format
The First Book of KIM-1 in HTML format
Sources of The First Book of KIM-1 in source and papertape format, Jeff Tranter

KIM-1 user guide and notes from Microcomputer Principles

KIM-1 Userguide
KIM-1 user guide and notes from the book “Microcomputer Principles featuring the 6502/KIM

Quick Reference by Jeff Trenter

KIM-1 Quick Reference by Jeff Trenter

Rockwell AIM 65 and RM65

AIM 65 was Rockwell’s SBC, in the tradition of KIM-1 and VIM/SYM-1, sharing the Application and Expansion connector designs, so add-ons could be used on all three. The Keypad/LED was replaced with a full keyboard and a 20 character display, making it more like a desktop computer than a SBC.
The AIM 65 (Advanced Interactive Monitor 65) has a 6502 CPU at 1 MHz and 1-4K RAM

The Rockwell AIM 65 computer is a development computer, introduced in 1978, based on the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor. Available software included a line-oriented machine code monitor, BASIC interpreter, assembler, Pascal, PL/65, and FORTH development system.
Later developments were the AIM 65/40 (40 character display, memory banks) and the RM 65 card based development system.
After 1984 Rockwell discontinued the AIM 65 and RM 65 product lines.

De PC 100 getest, an article by me, Hans Otten, August 1980,
in Radio Bulletin about the Siemens PC100, an AIM 65 with a case,
German documentation and sold by Siemens, Brutech in the Netherlands.


SYM-1 by Ray Holt and Manny Lomas (after Microcomputer Associates they formed Synertek Systems).

Originally called VIM-1, this was a 6502 SBC meant to be a better KIM-1. The design shared the same application connector, so it was possible to produce expansions (the ASK family as Robert Tripp of The Computerist called it).
More I/O (6522’s and the 6532 for the same 6 7 segment LEDs and larger keypad), more RAM (4K), more empty ROM slots, a better monitor (vectored, so easy to interface to new hardware), optional Basic or Resident Assembler Editor.

On these pages a collection of available SYM-1 hardware and software.


Synertek SYM-1 KTM

Synertek, Inc. was an American semiconductor manufacturer founded in 1973. The initial founding group consisted of Bob Schreiner (from Fairchild), Dan Floyd, Zvi Grinfas, Jack Balletto, and Gunnar Wetlesen. The manufacturing technology was MOS/LSI.
Initial products included custom designed devices, as well as a line of standard products (static RAMs, ROMs, dynamic and static shift registers) and then, sometime before 1979, second sourced versions of MOS Technology’s successful 6502 8-bit microprocessor, and the (less successful) Philips/Signetics 2650 processor and Zilog Z8 microcomputer.
Major customers included Atari (for its video game product line their biggest customer at a certain point of time) and Apple Computer (for its Apple II computer).
In the days leading up to the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire, Steve Wozniak chose to use a Synertek ROM chip for the Apple II, which was revealed at the event, after a chip from American Megatrends didn’t arrive on time.

Here some pages with information on Synertek, Micro Associates and my SYM-1 systems.

The Jolt from Micro Associates and initialy not a Synertek product, has its own page here.

Synertek Databook 1983 Chapter 5 Systems

My VIM-1:

My current SYM-1:

Synertek acquired Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, consisting of engineers Manny Lemas and Ray Holt, after which it was renamed Synertek Systems, Inc. and established as a subsidiary. In 1978, Synertek Systems released a 6502-based single board computer/evaluation kit called the SYM-1, a derivative of MOS Technology/Commodore Semiconductor Group’s KIM-1.
Synertek’s semiconductor fabrication plant in Santa Clara, California operated from 1974 to 1985. Sometime after 1979, Synertek was acquired by Honeywell and set up as a subsidiary. Later, around 1983, construction began for an additional manufacturing facility in Santa Cruz, California. There was Superfund attention to pollution at the Synertek factory site. When market conditions deteriorated, primarily because of business downturns at Atari, work was stopped at the Santa Cruz facility and it was later sold. Honeywell shut down operations at Synertek in 1985 and assets were sold off (from Wikipedia).

Part of Chapter 5, systems, of the Synertek Databook 1983, note the Jolt was still available.

The end of Synertek Systems in 1985:

Photos by Ray Holt




Jolt and Super Jolt

On these pages some information on the Jolt and Super Jolt are presented, the result of a Internet research for Jolt, Super Jolt and Microcomputer Associates. Microcomputer Associates company played an important role in the 6502 SBCs, TIM, KIM-1 and SYM-1 all contain results of their work. It continued as Synertek Systems with the SYM-1 and more.

Jolt page

Super Jolt page

Microcomputer Associates page