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RNB VAK-1/2/4

RNB Enterprises sold a range of AIM 65/SYM-1/KIM-1 extension cards, ranging from a VAK-1 Motherboard, RAM and EPROM cards and prototyping card.

VAK-1/2/4 manuals RNB Enterprises
User Manual VAK-1 Motherboard
Schematics of VAK-1 Motherboard
User Manual VAK-2, -3, -4 (2x 8KB SRAM boards)

Byte Magazine 1979 01 RNB Enterprises SYM-1 KIM-1 VAK-X boards advertisement

Byte Magazine 1979 01
RNB Enterprises SYM-1 KIM-1
VAK-1to VAK-8 boards advertisement

65XX MICROMAG

A German magazine devoted to the 65XX SBC’s like KIM-1, SYM-1 and mostly AIM 65. June 1978 to 1978, 49 issues.Complete scans thanks to the German forum Verein zum Erhalt klassischer Computer e.V. (forum classic-computing.org)

65XX MICROMAG


2708 programmer
EPROM-Programmierer KIM-1: 2708, Ingo Dohman, 65XX MICROMAG
Data exchange between KIM-1 and TRS-80
Datenaustausch zwischen KIM und TRS-80,
Claus Wunsche, 65XX Micromag

Diese erste Deutsche Fachzeitschrift für die kleinen Computer wurde von Roland Löhr, Ahrensburg, in den Jahren 1978-1985 herausgegeben.

65xx Micro Mag 1
65xx Micro Mag 2
65xx Micro Mag 3
65xx Micro Mag 4
65xx Micro Mag 5
65xx Micro Mag 6
65xx Micro Mag 7
65xx Micro Mag 8
65xx Micro Mag 9
65xx Micro Mag 10
65xx Micro Mag 11
65xx Micro Mag 12
65xx Micro Mag 13
65xx Micro Mag 14
65xx Micro Mag 15
65xx Micro Mag 16
65xx Micro Mag 17
65xx Micro Mag 18
65xx Micro Mag 19
65xx Micro Mag 20
65xx Micro Mag 21
65xx Micro Mag 22
65xx Micro Mag 23
65xx Micro Mag 24
65xx Micro Mag 25
65xx Micro Mag 26
65xx Micro Mag 27
65xx Micro Mag 28
65xx Micro Mag 29
65xx Micro Mag 30
65xx Micro Mag 31
65xx Micro Mag 32

65xx MicroMag Inhalt 1-32 (also listed here after)

65xx Micro Mag 33
65xx Micro Mag 34
65xx Micro Mag 35
65xx Micro Mag 36

The name changed after Issue 36, the 65XX was dropped to represent the wider nature of the magazine.

Micro Mag 37
Micro Mag 38
Micro Mag 39
Micro Mag 40
Micro Mag 41
Micro Mag 42
Micro Mag 43
Micro Mag 44
Micro Mag 45
Micro Mag 46
Micro Mag 47
Micro Mag 48
Micro Mag 49

Contents of Nr. 1 1978 to Nr 32 1983
Numbers are either the Issue number (pointing to one of the PDF’s above) or a B1 Buch 1: Issue 1-6, B2 Buch 2: Issue7-13

Allgemeine Themen
-Wie soll man Arbeitsspeicher bereitstellen? B1-77
-Adreßkonstante vs. Verschieblichkeit B1-78
-Formate und Kompatibilität bei der Magnetbandaufzeichnung B1-82
-Datenaustausch zwischen KIM-1 und TRS 80 7-28*
-Erzeugung quasistatischen Rauschens durch Zufallszahlenfolgen 7-43*
-Zufallszahlengenerator 8-35*
-Magnetbandbetrieb 9-32*
-Umbau eines Cassettenrecorders 9-35*
-Anschluß von numerischer Anzeige und Tastatur (1) 11-31*
-Interruptgetriebene Cassettenein- und Ausgabe 12-23*
-Anschluß von numerischer Anzeige und Tastatur (2) 12-32*
-Wie liest man ein Programm-Listing? 13- 8*
-Anschluß von numerischer Anzeige und Tastatur (3) 13-20*
-Basic DATA-Generator 13-33*
-Interruptgetriebene Cassettenein- und Ausgabe (2) 13-43*
-Rechtsbündige Zahlenausgabe 14-41
-Datenaustausch zwischen zwei Mikroprozessorsystemen (1) 15-53
-Steuerung – elegant per Assembler 16-16
-Datenaustausch zwischen zwei Mikroprozessorsystemen (2) 16-55
-Datenaustausch zwischen zwei Mikroprozessorsystemen (3) 17-27
-Rechnerkopplung mit Interrupt 17-31
-Die (Un-)Zuverlässigkeit von Kassettenspeichern 17-32
-Hannover-Messe 1981 18-47
-Einkommensteuerberechnung 1980 19-71
-PRINT-Formatierung 19-35
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (1) 20- 3
-Einkommensteuerberechnung 1981 21-46
-Feedback 21-47
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (2)
-BASIC-Formatierungen 22-57
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (4) 23-23
-Lösung der kubischen Gleichung 23-26
-Formatierte Zahlenausgabe 23-27
-SHAKE (Permutationen) 23-30
-RAM-EPROM-Karte 4 kB g 4 kB 23-36
-BASIC mit Struktur 23-39
-Geisterzeilen im Microsoft-BASIC 23-42
-Low Cost Typenraddrucker 24-41
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (3) 24-50
-Hinweise für Autoren 24-57
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (4a) 25-54
-SHAKER 25-60
-Low Cost Typenraddrucker (2) 26-32
-Timesharing 26-44
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (5) 27- 7
-LISP – eine Sprache wird wiederentdeckt 27-50
-Lesen typ-verschiedener EPROMs 27-59
-Code-Wandler 28-20
-Prozeßtechnik mit Mikro-Computern (6) 28-28
-Parser und Entscheider 29- 3
-Symbolisches Differenzieren (BASIC) 29-33
-Symbolisches Differenzieren (LISP) 29-41
-Multi-TASK bei Mikrocomputern 29-50
-Einkommensteuerberechnung 1982 29-56
-MOVE und RELOCATE 30-31
-Spätlese 30-61
-32 kB CMOS-RAM 31-46
-Supertape – Kassettenaufzeichnung mit 600 Byte/Sek. 32-52
-Hi-Plot 32-37

6502
-Ein Leitfaden ein die Programmierung B1- 1
-ASP – Advanced Subroutine Package B1-35
-Makros für 65xx B1-67
-SWEET 16 B1-20
-Neue Intelligente Peripheriebausteine B1-81
-Die VIA 6521 7- 3*
-ASP – Advanced Subroutine Package (6) 9-22*
-Align für ALPHA-SORT 9-28*
-Ein Leitfaden für die Programmierung (4) 9-41*
-Interrupt-Demonstrationsprogramm für die VIA 6522 10-24*
-Ein Leitfaden für die Programmierung (5) 10-30*
-Geschachtelte Interrupts 12-28*
-Pseudo 16-Bit CPU 18-18
-APPLE II emuliert AIM 65 20-31
-VNITEX – Universale Textausgabe 21-30
-Binär-BCD-Wandlung 22-2)
-Druckerausgabe auf parallele Schnittstelle 22-30
-6502 Multiplikation, Division 22-31

6805/68705
-1-Chip Mikroprozessor 6805 und 68705 27- 3

6809
-Ein fortschrittlicher Verwandter: MC 6809 15- 3
-MC 6809: Register, Signale, Befehle 18- 3
-MC 6809: Befehle (1) 19-20
-MC 6809: Befehle (2) 20-50
-Adressierungsarten des 6809 22-42
-BASIC-Disassembler für 6809 24-10

68000
-Wichtige Merkmale des MC 68000 30- 3
-Interfacebaustein PI/T 68230 30- 7

CBM und PET
-PET 6502-Assembler B1-212
-Der PET-Assembler 7-37*
-PET Video-Driver 7-38*
-Primfaktoren-Zerlegung 8- 3*
-Video-Edit (PET) 8-11*
-PET-Petits 8-14*
-TRACE (PET) 9- 3*
-VIEW (PET) 9- 5*
-Text-Editor (PET) 9- 6*
-PETROL (Bildschirm rollen) 9- 9*
-RESTORE Line Number (PET) 9-13*
-Datenverbund zwischen AIM 65 und PET 2001 9-14*
-CBM-VIEW, neue Befehle 10-20*
-Berechnetes GOTO für den CBM 10-21*
-Tape Catalog (CBM) 10-41*
-Disk Utility Program (CBM) 11- 6*
-6502 Direct Assembler (PET) 11-12*
-Schaufel Relocate, (PET) 11-16*
-VARLIST (Variablenausdruck, PET) 11-17*
-CBM schießt sich eigene EPROMs 11-24*
-ROM-Vergleichsliste CBM-PET 11-28*
-BASIC Keywords to Shifted Keys 12- 3*
-CBM UNIPLOTT 12-48*
-Der CBM-Assembler 13-78*
-Binäres Speichern von Zahlen 13-27*
-BLANK-DELETER 13-29*
-Automatische Zeilennumerierung PET/CBM 14-33
-Das Auffinden einer BASIC-Variablen 14-35
-Dekadischer Logarithmus per USER 14-36
-Garbage Collection Routine im CBM 14-38
-Sichern und Laden dimensionierter Variablen 14-42
-Programmveränderung (CBM) 15-15
-Zeitanzeige auf PET und CBM 15-21
-INPUT-Routine (PET) 15-57
-Ein Sortierprogramm ein CBM 3001 16- 3
-Tastentest ein CBM 3032 16-53
-PASCAL ein CBM 17- 3
-Kaufmännisches Rechnen auf dem CBM 17- 9
-Grafik-Zugriff beim CBM-Busy 17-14
-1/4-0rafik für CBM 3001 17-15
-CBM 3032: Benutzung arithmetischer Interpreterroutinen 17-44
-ON ERROR GO TO 18-16
-Garbage Collection Routinen im CBM-BASIC 18-27
-Assoziative Tabellen (CBM) 18-29
-Direktzugriff mit CBM 18-45
-Niitzliche Dokumentationen für PET und CBM 18-50
-SUPER LIST CBM/Centronics 18-51
-Schnelle Sortierroutine für CBM 3001 19- 3
-REPEAT für den CBM 3007 19-32
-Zeitanzeige PET/CBM 19-36
-1/4-Grafik (CBM) 19-47
-SCREENROLL (CBM) 19-52
-Cross-Reference List für BASIC-Variable (CBM) 20-10
-Zweidimensionale Felder sortieren (CBM) 20-12
-Der Datenverkehr Rechner und CBM-Floppy 4040 21-10
-PRINTUSING für CBM 21-19
-ROM-Test für CBM 3001 21-33
-Einfache Sprachausgabe mit Kleinrechner 21-43
-ERASE rechts vom Cursor 21-61
-Mischbilder vom PET und einer Video-Kamera 22-38
-Berechnung von Pi mit großer Genauigkeit 22-41
-CBM-Math 22-50
-Breite Monitorausgabe für CBM 8032 22-56
-Disk-APPEND 22-57
-ISAM, ein Dateityp 23-17
-CBM-FORTH 23-49
-CBM: Abschalten des Interrupts 24-40
-SWAP für BASIC 3 25-58
-PETARI (CBM) 26-34
-Compactor-Review 26-50
-Disassemblieren des CBM-DOS 26-59
-RENAME Disk 4040 27-51
-Graph/Text für CBM 3031 27-52
-Fernsteuerung eines Tonbandgerätes 27-53
-Vom Code zum Text: UNASS (CBM) 28-33
-Der UNASS, ein erster Test 29-44
-Drei Disk Utilities 29-47
-High Resolution Screen Dump, CBM auf EPSON 2/3 30-42
-PETAL, Precompiler ein die CBM-Serie 30-51
-INPUT-Window (CBM) 31-42
-BASIC 4: Die neuen Befehle 32- 6
-CROSSREF für BASIC-Programme 32-12
-Alpha-Korrelation 32-21
-VC-20 am IEEE48B-Bus 32-24
-Big Letters von CBM auf EPSON 32-54

AIM 65 – PC 100
-AIM 65 – ein erster Anwenderbericht B1-170
-Der Monitor des AIM 65 B1-178
-AIM 65 User’s Guide B1-179
-AIMPLOT – Meßwerte plotten B1-180
-AIMGRAPH – Graphics Capability for the AIM Printer B1-182
-LOKIM – AIM Loads to New Location B1-184
-The Hamming Way (Tape with 3150 Baud) B1-186
-AIM Spezial B1-193
-QREAD B1-194
-AIM 65 – Monitor Cross Reference List B1-197
-Der AIM-Assembler 7-14*
-AIM-BASIC 7-20*
-MOVE and RELOCATE 7-24*
-AIM 65 als Terminal 7-33*
-AIM Spezial (2) 7-34*
-Gedanken zum Video-AIM 8-16*
-Oszillograph als Bildschirm ein den AIM 65 8-36*
-Auskunftssystem mit dem AIM 65 8-36*
-AIM-Tastatur mit Kleinschreibung 8-39*
-AIM Spezial (3) 8-41*
-AIM Spezial (4) 9- 8*
-Datenverbund zwischen AIM 65 und PET 2001 9-14*
-Assembler-Listing für den AIM 65 9-17*
-KOORD. Plotten mit dem AIM-Printer 9-29*
-Auskunftssystem mit dem AIM 65 (2) 9-37*
-AIM Spezial (5) 10- 3*
-MTEST, Speicherpriifung mit Zufallszahlen 10-11*
-Binärdisplay-Programm 10-15*
-Listing der Assembler-Symboltafe1 10-16*
-PRINT in 60 Spalten 10-22*
-TVINT – Systeminitialisierung 10-29*
-Erzeugung eines ‘kalten’ RESETs beim AIM 10-38*
-BASIC-Erweiterung ein AIM 65/PC 100 10-40*
-MLIST 11- 3*
-AIM Spezial (6) 11-22*
-Ein Printer für den AIM 11-23*
-USCOM – User Defined BASIC-Commands 11-37*
-Erweiterung des AIM 65 auf den S-700-8us 11-39*
-Cross-Reterence Table für den AIM 65-Assembler 12- 9*
-AIM Spezial (7) 12-43*
-NUMBR 12-45″
-Datenein- und -ausgabe ein das AIM-BASIC 13- 3*
-User Defined BASIC-Commands V2.1 13- 8*
-AIM Spezial (8) 13-52*
-Ein- und Ausgabe am AIM 65 (1) 14- 3
-BASXT – BASIC-Erweiterung 14-17
-Generelle Dumpprogramme für breite Drucker 14-23
-Ein- und Ausgabe am AIM 65 (2) 15- 7
-Disassemblierung in den Text-Editor 15-23
-NRINS – AIM-Editor mit Zeilennummern 15-38
-AIM 65 als Simplexfernschreiser am KIM-7 15-45
-Musikerzeugung mit dem AIM 65 15-50
-Assembler Cross Reference Map – AIM 65 16- 9
-Ein- und Ausgabe am AIM 65 (3) 16-27
-Schnelles und sicheres 8andformat ein AIM 65 16-33
-AIM 65 mit ‘fremder’ Systemsoftware 17-77
-FASTLINK 17-24
-Komplette BASIC-Statements durch CTRL und Tastendruck 17-35
-LMR. LOAD, MOVE, RELOCATE 17-38
-Laufzeitmessung ein Programme 18- 9
-SEARCH 18-34
-Assembler Object Deplacer 18-36
-Change to End 18-38
-Tape-Dupe 18-40
-NEW Single Step 19-30
-Plotten mit dem AIM 65 19-33
-AIM 65 am IEEE488-Bus 19-38
-EPROM-Programmiereinheit ein AIM 65 20-18
-Softuareentwicklung ein AIM 65 auf PDP 71 20-26
-Object Code Editor 20-47
-AIM Spezial (9) 20-61
-AIM mit Floppy Disk CBM 4040 21- 3
-Uhr und Kalender 21-36
-Ein- und Ausgabe am AIM 65 (4) 21-51
-Monitor-Erweiterung AIM 65 21-53
-AIM Spezial (10) 21-58
-Sortieren mit dem AIM 22- 3
-LINED (Editor-Erweiterung) 22-11
-AIM Spezial (71) 22-54
-Was bietet ‘Instant PASCAL’ ? (AIM) 23-16
-HISTO (Histogramme) 23-29
-Druckerausgabe auf TTY 23-32
-Assembler-Reformattor mit TTY-Ausgang 23-33
-Graphik-Plot am AIM 65/PC 100 23-43
-Fast Assembler 24-18
-Strukturiert und schnell: PL/65 24-25
-Graphik-Plot (2) 24-30
-Der AIM 65 PL/65-Compiler 25-41
-BASIC-Compactor 25-48
-AIM Spezial (12) 25-62
-Das AIM 65 Math-Package 26-30
-Textrettung 26-59
-AIM User Keyboard 27-13
-AIM mit Floppy CBM 8050 27-20
-Decodierung des Axxx-Bereiches im AIM 65 27-57
-REMON -Redigierter Monitor 28- 3
-AIM Spezial (13) 28-16
-Erweiterter Befehlssatz: CMOS-CPV R65C02 28-16
-Speichererweiterung für AIM 65 28-18
-SCREEN – Bildschirmeditor ein AIM 65 30-10
-Editor mit Steuerzeichen – AIM steuert Seikosha GM 250 30-23
-64K-DRAM am AIM 65 30-61
-EXEDIT – Extended Editor für AIM 65 31- 3
-Erweiterung des EXEDIT 31-18
-AIM Spezial (14) 31-22
-Schnelles Replace ein AIM 65 32-44
-User Output-Arbiter 32-48
-Assembler-Formatierer für AIM 65 32-49

KIM-1
-Display- Blink- und Rollroutinen B1-86
-MRA. Modify Return Address after JSR B1-90
-RAM-Test with Random Patterns B1-93
-ROLDIS – Scrolling Disassembler B1-96
-Alpha-Sort B1-704
-Zahlenwandlung B1-170
-HEADHUNTER B1-122
-STATISTICIAN B1-123
-SUMMARY B1-126
-STRINGHUNTER B1-131
-RALOAD – Relocate after Load B1-133
-Relocate Programs with Header B1-740
-Universal Timer B1-143
-The Lovely Couple of OUICKDUMP and VERSALOAD B1-146
-Transscribe HYPERTAPE to quickDUMP B1-157
-OUICKLOAD Mini B1-758
-EPROM-Programmierer KIM-1/2708 B1-760
-Printerprogramm ein Mini-Dot B1-763
-HEXDOT B1-765
-TYDUMP B1-166
-KIM-7 als Störungsanalysator B1-167

SYM-I
-SYM-I HYPERTAPE-Loader B1-217
-SYM-I, ein Anwenderbericht B1-227

FORTH
-AIM 65 FORTH 16-22
-AIM FORTH V7.3 19-78
-FORTH-Disassembler 19-24
-CBM-FORTH 23-49
-FORTH (1) 24- 3
-Strings für FORTH 25- 3
-FORTH (2) 25-75
-Mengen in FORTH 25-24
-FORTH im Eigenhau (1) 25-30
-FORTH: Befehle für 32-Bit-Zahlen 26- 3
-FORTH (3) 26- 8
-Dynamische Speicherverwaltung in FORTH 26-27
-FORTH im Eigenbau (2) 26-32
-FORTH (4) 27-29
-Cross-Assembler unter FORTH 27-35
-FORTH Turtle-Grafik ein GDP EF 9365 27-37
-FORTH im Eigenbau (3) 27-42
-Ausdruck von Kalendern 28-40
-Multiplikation und Division im FIG-FORTH 28-45
-Makro-Assembler unter FORTH 28-46
-FORTH (5) 28-49
-FORTH mit Fließkomma-Arithmetik 28-57
-FORTH-Splitter (1) 28-52
-Disk-Interface ein FIG-FORTH (CBM) 29-17
-FORTH-Editor 29-19
-FORTH mit Fließkomma-Arithmetik (2) 29-26
-FORTH-Splitter (2) 29-28
-FORTH mit JSR 29-30
-FORTH (6) 29-31
-Gerundete Integer-Quadratwurze1 IS9R 30-60
-FORTH (7) 31-25
-FORTH-Mnemonics? 31-28
-Adreßkartei unter FORTH 31-31
-FORTH-Disassembler 31-35
-FORTH-Splitter (3) 32-57

Produktbesprechungen
-Das VIDEO+ 11-41*
-Vorstellung des Siemens PC 100 10-18*
-Superboard CHALLENGER 1I 11-44*
-Die Challengers von OSI 11-16*
-NEWTIM-S ein CBM 13-26*
-Die neue CBM-Serie 8000 13-41*
-Der AIM 65/40 16-25
-Junior-Computer 16-52
-Video-Interface der Fa. Neudecker 16-49
-Hofer-Drucker 16-49
-Ein g(0)-System 18-43
-DAIM Floppy Disk-System für den AIM 65 18-46
-MatrixdruCker EPSON MX80 F/T 19-49
-12K Basic ein AIM 65/PC 700 19-50
-SM-Kit für CBM 20-59
-Rockwell’s AIM 65/40 23- 3
-Der TRS-80 Color-Computer 23- 9
-Commodore VC-20 23-73
-ISAM ein CBM 23-55
-NEC PC-8023 B-C: ein universeller Drucker 28-53
-FORCE SYS 68K/CPU 1: VMEbus-System mit MC 68000 30-48
-Commodore CBM 710 32- 3
-Heimcomputer: LASER und Aquarius 32-52

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Amateur Radio

Amateur Radio February 1978 Looking for a Micro? – consider the KIM-1

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Popular Electronics

Articles and advertisement, from 1977 to 1980


1977 07 08 10 Build the TVT-6, a Low-cost Direct Video Display

1977 07 08 10
Build the TVT-6, a Low-cost Direct Video Display

1977 12 Advertisement Play it Safe KIMPAC

1977 12
Advertisement Play it Safe KIMPAC

1977 12 Advertisement KIM-1 6530-003 003 004 005

1977 12 Advertisement
KIM-1 6530-003 003 004 005

1977 12 Advertisement KIM-1

1977 12 Advertisement KIM-1

1978 03 6502 Executive for KIM-1

1978 03 6502 Executive for KIM-1

1978 04 FCL65E High-Level Language for 6502

1978 04 FCL65E
High-Level Language for 6502

1978 07 KIM-1 Extended I/O Monitor XIM

KIM-1 Extended I/O Monitor XIM

1978 07 Advertisement KIM-1 KIM-3B KIM-4 KIM-5 KIM-6

1978 04 Advertisement
KIM-1 KIM-3B KIM-4 KIM-5 KIM-6

1978 07 Advertisement Memory Plus

1978 07 Advertisement Memory Plus

1978 08 Advertisement KIM-1 KIMSI, KIM-4 Enclosure 8K Visible Memory

1978 08 Advertisement
KIM-1 KIMSI, KIM-4 Enclosure
8K Visible Memory

1978 08 Advertisement VIM-1

1978 08 Advertisement VIM-1

1978 09 Multiply and Divide 6502

1978 09 Multiply and Divide 6502
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Byte Magazine 6502 and KIM-1

Articles and advertisements from Byte Magazine related to the 6502 in general and the KIM-1.


Byte Magazine 1975 11 Son of Motorola (or, the $20 CPU Chip)

Byte Magazine 1975 11 Son of Motorola (or, the $20 CPU Chip)

Byte Magazine 1975 12 Introducing Jolt .. the world lowest cost computer system


Byte Magazine 1976 01 Introducing Jolt .. the world lowest cost computer system


Byte Magazine 1976 04 What’s New, KIM-o-sabee


Byte Magazine 1976 05 A Date with KIM

Byte Magazine 1976 05 A Date with KIM

Byte Magazine 1976 08 How I relate to KIM True Confesssions

Byte Magazine 1976 08 How I relate to KIM True Confesssions

Byte Magazine 1977 03 A opcode Table for 6502

A opcode Table for 6502

Byte Magazine 1977 04 A Review of Tom Pitman’s Tiny basic

Byte Magazine 1977 04 A Review of Tom Pitman’s Tiny basic

Byte Magazine 1977 04 KIM goes to the Moon

Byte Magazine 1977 04 KIM goes to the Moon, Jim Butterfield

Byte Magazine 1977 06 Interfacing the IBM Selectric Keyboard Printer

Byte Magazine 1977 06 Interfacing the IBM Selectric Keyboard Printer

Byte Magazine 1977 06 Come Fly with KIM

Byte Magazine 1977 06 Come Fly with KIM

Byte Magazine 1977 07 Giving KIM Some Fancy Jewels


Byte Magazine 1977 09 A Sampling of Techniques for Computer Performance of Music

Byte Magazine 1977 09
A Sampling of Techniques for Computer Performance of Music
Hal Chamberlin

Byte Magazine 1977 09 A new Dress for the KIM


Byte Magazine 1977 10 Use S-100 Boards with your KIM-1 advertisement

Use S-100 Boards with your KIM-1 advertisement

Byte Magazine 1977 10 Chess program for SOL and KIM-1

Chess program for SOL and KIM-1

Byte Magazine 1977 11 Advertisement KIM Meets S-100

Byte Magazine 1977 11 Advertisement KIM Meets S-100

Byte Magazine 1977 11 Sweet 16 Steve Wozniak

Byte Magazine 1977 11 Sweet 16 Steve Wozniak

Byte Magazine 1977 11 A 6502 Personal System Design: Kompuutar

Byte Magazine 1977 11 A 6502 Personal System Design: Kompuutar

Byte Magazine 1977 12 The XF and X7 Instructions of the MOS Technology 6502

Byte Magazine 1977 12 The XF and X7 Instructions
of the MOS Technology 6502

Byte Magazine 1978 02 Sweets for KIM A Low calorie Text Editor

Byte Magazine 1978 02
Sweets for KIM A Low calorie Text Editor

Byte Magazine 1978 03 Microchess 1.5 versus Dark Horse


Byte Magazine 1978 03 KIMSI

Byte Magazine 1978 03 KIMSI

Byte 1978 06 More Music for the 6502


Byte 1978 06 Audio Processing with a Microprocessor

Byte 1978 06
Audio Processing with a Microprocessor

Byte 1978 07 KIMER: A KIM-1 Timer


Byte Magazine 1978 09 Plugging the KIM-2 Gap

Byte Magazine 1978 09 Plugging the KIM-2 Gap

Byte Magazine 1978 11 KIM-1 advertisement

Byte Magazine 1978 11 KIM-1 advertisement
Commodore MOS Technology

Byte Magazine 1978 12 SUPERKIM advertisement

Byte Magazine 1978 12 SUPERKIM advertisement

Byte Magazine 1978 12 A Single Board Microcomputer System SYM-1

Byte Magazine 1978 12
A Single Board Microcomputer System SYM-1

Byte Magazine 1978 12 Zapper A Computer Driven EPROM Programmer

Byte Magazine 1978 12
Zapper A Computer Driven EPROM Programmer

Byte Magazine 1979 01 RNB Enterprises SYM-1 KIM-1 VAK-X boards advertisement

Byte Magazine 1979 01
RNB Enterprises SYM-1 KIM-1
VAK-1to VAK-8 boards advertisement

Byte Magazine 1979 01 Jade Computer Products

Byte Magazine 1979 01 Jade Computer Products
SYM-1 KIM-1 6502 6530-002 – 003 -004 -005 IC’s

Byte Magazine 1979 02 1980 02 Another Plotter to Toy with, Revisited

Byte Magazine 1979 02 1980 02
Another Plotter to Toy with
Another Plotter to Toy with, Revisited

Byte Magazine 1979 02 Cosmac 1802 Simulator for KIM-1

Byte Magazine 1979 02 Cosmac 1802 Simulator for KIM-1

Byte Magazine 1979 03 MICROCHESS advertisement

Byte Magazine 1979 03 MICROCHESS advertisement

Byte Magazine 1979 05 Aids for Hand Assembling Programs

Byte Magazine 1979 05
Aids for Hand Assembling Programs

Byte Magazine 1979 06 Software for Jolt and TIM owners

Byte Magazine 1979 06
Software for Jolt and TIM owners

Byte Magazine 1979 06 KIM-1 Control System

Byte Magazine 1979 06 KIM-1 Control System

Byte Magazine 1979 07 8080 Simulator for the 6502

Byte Magazine 1979 07 8080 Simulator for the 6502

Byte Magazine 1979 08 Turn Your KIM into a Metronome


Byte Magazine 1979 09 Interface a Chessboard to Your KIM-1

Byte Magazine 1979 09 Interface a Chessboard to Your KIM-1

Byte Magazine 1980 03 KIM-1 Multiplication and Division

Byte Magazine 1980 03 KIM-1 Multiplication and Division

Byte Magazine 1980 03 You Win! with Sybex

Byte Magazine 1980 03 You Win! with Sybex

Byte Magazine 1980 04 Advanced Real-Time Synthesis Techniques

Byte Magazine 1980 04
Advanced Real-Time Synthesis Techniques
Hal Chamberlin

Byte Magazine 1980 04 Program Those 2708s!

Byte Magazine 1980 04 Program Those 2708s!

Byte Magazine 1980 06 An Answer/Originate Modem

Byte Magazine 1980 06 An Answer/Originate Modem

Byte Magazine 1980 09 Penny Pincher’s Joystick Interface

Byte Magazine 1980 09 Penny Pincher’s Joystick Interface

Byte Magazine 1980 06 The Impossible Dream

Byte Magazine 1980 06
The Impossible Dream
Computing e to 116,000 places with a Peroanl Computer
Stephen Wozniak

Byte Magazine 1980 10 The 6502 gets Micro programmable Instructions

Byte Magazine 1980 10 The 6502 gets Micro programmable Instructions

Byte Magazine 1980 10 Floptran IV: A Tiny Compiler

Byte Magazine 1980 10 Floptran IV: A Tiny Compiler

Byte Magazine 1981 10 A Simple Implementation of Multitasking

Byte Magazine 1981 A Simple Implementation of Multitasking

Byte Magazine 1980 12 Monster Combat

Byte Magazine 1980 12 Monster Combat
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KIM-1 and 6502 in magazines

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The story of the KIM-1

The story of the KIM-1 (from Ch.1.5 of “On the Edge: the Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore”)

MOS Technology developed a second system concurrently with the TIM. This computer was slightly more user friendly – at least by 1975 standards. Rather than a chip and some instructions, this system arrived fully assembled, except for the power supply. It was a true development system.
The inspiration for the new computer came from Don McLaughlin, MOS Technology founder and engineering manager of the project. Peddle recalls, “McLaughlin said, ‘Listen, I think this is a product that will help sell the [6502]’. They thought it was a good idea because they were calculator guys.” Peddle and a programming manager named Bob Winterhalt agreed with the idea and the three men began the design.
According to MOS Technology employee Al Charpentier, his friend and fellow engineer performed the actual hands-on design work of the system. “That was done by a guy by the name of John May,” recalls Charpentier. “He was sort of the primary mover on that project.”
At this early stage in microcomputer development, user-friendly personal computers were barely on the horizon. Niceties like a video monitor, keyboard, software, power supply, or an enclosure were not part of most designs. The recently released Altair relied on switches for input and blinking lights for output. Any other interfaces had to be added by the user. By today’s standards, it was comically impossible for most people to contemplate using these machines.
This new sibling of TIM would share similarities, but differ in a few areas. As with the TIM, this unit would contain a 6502 processor running at one megahertz. However, McLaughlin advanced TIM’s basic design slightly, branching out in a unique direction. Instead of reading data from a row of flashing lights, the new computer would contain a six-digit display. Each digit in the display had seven segments, which could display numbers and letters. The primitive display was a step up from tiny lights representing binary digits used on most other systems. McLaughlin also improved on the basic input method for personal computers at the time. Rather than a row of switches for binary input, McLaughlin specified a keypad. John May eventually selected a black keypad with 23-buttons. This was a remarkable improvement over other microcomputers of the time, allowing users to enter code more easily.

Both the keypad and the LED display reside directly on the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB), along with over a hundred precariously exposed components. The lack of a case or a power supply for the new computer clearly indicated MOS Technology was not targeting the machine for the mass market. A careless user could easily damage the machine..
Little TIM provided a paltry 256 bytes of memory, hardly enough to store three lines of characters on an 80-character computer display. TIM’s bigger brother would contain a full kilobyte of memory, comprised of eight MOS Technology 6102 memory chips. At the time, 1024 bytes was a generous amount. There was even room for expansion. Two 44-pin edge connectors made data and control signals available to the builder for additional functionality.

Prototype KIM-1
On team6502  I found a photo of a prototype KIM-1 at MOS Technologies, Terry Holdt has this in his office.
The layout is different from the final product, everything seems to be present on this prototype.

Although the two development teams were separate, they shared as much code as possible. To support a teletype machine, John May used the code from the TIM system. The 2-kilobyte program, also named TIM, contained the code to operate a cassette tape unit for storage, drive the alphanumeric display, and accept input from the 23 keys of the keypad. It also contained a monitor program, which allowed users to view memory contents and change code. A tiny bootstrap program would automatically start the monitor on reset. This was the pinnacle of user friendliness in 1975.
The name for this new computer followed the tradition set by TIM. The TIM allowed input from a terminal, hence Terminal Input Monitor. The new system allowed input from a tiny black keyboard, so McLaughlin dubbed it the Keyboard Input Monitor, or KIM. They also added a number after the computer name, a practice later continued by Commodore. It contained one kilobyte of memory, hence KIM-1. 2
Former MOS Technology engineer Robert Yannes owns the first KIM-1. “I have a very rare thing that I scavenged out of scrap heap at MOS Technology: the original prototype KIM-1, and it still works. It’s a little bit different than what went into production,” he says.

In the middle of 1975, MOS Technology began selling the KIM-1. Buyers who sent away for their KIM-1 were pleasantly surprised to have a rectangular cardboard box arrive from “MOS Microcomputers”, a short-lived division of MOS Technology. The KIM-1 circuit board arrived sealed in a black static-proof bag, surrounded by thick foam padding with manuals and documentation on top. The documentation included with the KIM-1 went beyond other computers of the day. There were three manuals – a 200-page 6502 programming manual (written by Peddle under duress), a 100-page KIM-1 user manual, and a 150-page hardware manual. The writing was friendly, concise, and detailed. Most importantly, it did not assume the user knew everything about computers already. The KIM-1 user manual promised, “You should be able to achieve initial operation of your KIM-1 module within a few minutes.” Of course, this assumed you had access to a 5 volt, 1.5 ampere power supply. A 12 volt supply was required if the cassette tape was to be used. For those in doubt, the manual contained complete instructions and a parts list for building a power supply. Once the power supply dilemma was solved, the user hit the RS (reset) key to start using the system. This started the TIM monitor program running from ROM, which displayed numbers and accepted input from the keypad. Unlike today’s systems, the KIM-1 contained no on-off switch.
Users then began the exacting process of entering code into the machine in order to make KIM do something. After entering all the data, it was simple to run the program – just set the computer to the address where the program began and hit the GO button. If the program misbehaved, the KIM-1 also had a switch on the keypad labeled SST (single step). This would cause the computer to execute the program one instruction at a time. Users appreciated this important feature, which greatly assisted in debugging.
The built in cassette-tape interface of the KIM-1 proved indispensable for early hobbyists because it allowed them to save and load their work. In contrast, users of the MITS Altair had no way to save programs with their basic system. They would sit in front of their machine, laboriously flipping switches to enter their program into memory. If someone happened to trip on the power cord, the programmer had to start all over again.
The tape-interface alone made many KIM-1 owners fall in love with the computer, and many praised it for its reliability. Tape storage was the perfect medium for a 1-kilobyte computer. Programs loaded and saved rapidly, and dozens of programs fit onto a single cassette. Of course, a cassette recorder was not included with the KIM-1, so it was up to the user to find one. It was also up to the user to connect it to the KIM-1 by interfacing the microphone input and speaker output jacks to the gold-plated IO pins of the KIM-1.
Another advanced feature of the KIM-1 was its ability to connect directly to a Teletype machine or computer terminal through a built-in serial interface. Teletype machines were large electromechanical devices with the ability to enter data through a keyboard, print hard copy, and load and save data via punched paper tape. A noteworthy feature of the KIM-1 was its ability to automatically adjust to the speed of the teletype connected to it. People were amazed to see the tiny KIM-1 operating a massive piece of hardware normally connected to minicomputers or mainframes. This helped to convince skeptics that microcomputers were true computers. As it turned out, however, many people preferred using the LED display and keypad to the noisy, messy, and costly teletype machines.

The KIM-1 debuted during Wescon in Chuck Peddle’s hotel suite, along with the 6502 and other development systems. Users received the small computer enthusiastically. Al Charpentier recalls, “They sold a lot of those. It was sort of the first fully packaged microcomputer that you could take out of the box, throw a power supply on, and do something with. It was hell, but it educated people on the processor.”
Engineer Robert Yannes recalls KIM-1 engineer John May showing the machine at his college. “I had a lot of familiarity with the KIM-1,” says Yannes. “The guy who designed that was actually a friend of Al Charpentier’s, and he was a Villanova graduate too. He had brought it to Villanova University when it first came out and I had gone to that presentation. They had KIM-1’s at Villanova too, so I ended up playing with them.”
“The KIM-1 had one characteristic that everybody always commented on,” says Peddle. “It was a packaged, complete, plug-it-in-and-start-using-it product. You could sit down and learn to program using my manuals.”

Early Competition

In December 1975, the coveted inside front cover of BYTE magazine contained a two-page advertisement for ‘the world’s lowest cost computer system’. Though it contained a 6502 microprocessor, it was not the KIM-1. It was the Jolt computer, sold by Microcomputer Associates either as a kit for $249 or fully assembled and tested for $348. Jolt, named after Rod Holt who helped develop the TIM and KIM-1 code, was technically similar to the TIM computer. Although Jolt competed with the KIM-1, Peddle did not object. “Manny just said, ‘We want to do this board of our own’, and I said ‘great’”, explains Peddle. “I was looking for anything that would help customers design with the [6502] product. We gave these guys the license.” Nonetheless, Jolt did not have lasting popularity with the hobbyist market. Jolt’s most notable achievement lies in its use as the platform for the Atari 2600 VCS prototype system.
The Jolt advertisement in Byte did much to influence MOS Technology. A few months later, in the April 1976 issue of BYTE Magazine, a new product announcement appeared for the KIM-1 titled, ‘What’s New, KIM-o-sabee?’ There was also an advertisement from MOS Technology itself. The low-key ad, stating the features in KIM-1 in point form, included a clip-out order form for a $245 KIM-1 microcomputer system. Anyone who understood computers recognized the potential immediately.
The advertisement in BYTE caught the attention of the hobbyist market. A month later, BYTE ran a feature article titled, ‘A Date with KIM’. Byte contributor Richard Simpson gushed about the low price and quality of the feature-packed KIM-1. He accurately identified it as the ideal system for anyone who did not want to assemble a kit. The KIM-1 subsequently became a favorite of BYTE and other popular homebrew publications, such as Dr. Dobbs Journal, Kilobaud, and Interface Age. Articles and projects appeared in these magazines well into 1979.

Advertisement for KIM-1 in BYTE Magazine.

MOS Technology released the KIM-1 in 1975, the same year as the Altair 8800 computer. The Altair has come to be known as the first computer system in North America to herald the new microcomputer revolution. The differences between the KIM-1 and the Altair computer illustrate a split in design philosophy within the computer world. The KIM-1 was a single-board computer, with all components mounted on a single printed-circuit board. It had room for expansion, but there were no slots to insert adapter cards. This design philosophy reduced production costs and thus gave the KIM-1 a major pricing advantage over the Altair. Commodore computers would follow this tradition of containing everything on a single board, with specialized user ports for peripherals. The Altair 8800 used an Intel 8080 chip, which retailed for $360, but Ed Roberts was able to negotiate the price down to $75 each in bulk. Still, he needed to sell his computers for $439 in kit form, and $621 assembled to make a profit. MOS Technology was able to profitably sell KIM-1 systems for $245.
Though it was not a true personal computer, MOS Technology soon discovered the KIM-1 had a large market. “That was one of the things that took MOS by surprise,” recalls Bob Yannes. “Throughout the early days of computers, one of the most successful computers introduced in that timeframe was the KIM-1.
“They had developed the KIM-1 as a sort of sales tool for the 6502 processor. They would say, ‘Here’s a development system for you, you can design your own computer system and develop your software on the KIM-1 and help understand the hardware architecture and so forth.’ And people would use them and say, ‘Why do we want to design our own computer? We have one right here and it’s only [$245], which is cheaper than we can build it for.’ They would just buy KIM-1’s and bury them in their products.”
Hobbyists began enthusiastically calling and writing for the kit. Though the goal had been to drum up interest in the 6502 chip, it soon became apparent that microcomputers would also be a valuable source of revenue for the company. According to Kilobaud magazine, MOS Technology sold over seven thousand KIM-1 computers by June 1977. At $245 each, revenue was in the millions, which helped MOS pull through a tough financial period. “They sold a lot,” says Charpentier. “By God, they sold thousands of them – ten thousand or something like that. It was a big number of processors back then.” There was an obvious demand for computers.
The appeal of the KIM-1 was not lost on Chuck Peddle. “It was a complete package, and there are a lot of people who bought it just for that reason and learned something, and then said ‘Okay, that’s all I can do.’ But we were seeing those people and talking to them and getting feedback.”

The Seeds of the Software Industry

While the early microcomputer industry focused on hardware, very few people focused on software, with the notable exception of Bill Gates. As a result, there was a conspicuous absence of quality microcomputer software. Byte magazine noted this in December 1975, describing the situation as a “software vacuum”.
But when it came to software, the KIM-1 had an advantage over other microcomputers. The single board design resulted in a homogenous population of computers, which guaranteed programs would work from one system to the next. The simple operating system put all KIM-1 users on equal footing, so programmers knew their programs would run on all standard KIM-1 computers. Distributing the programs was also easy due to the standard tape-interface. Soon, programmers began copying and distributing their code on low cost audio tapes.

MOS Technology sold one of the earliest KIM-1 software packages at a time when no one knew what might appeal to users. One obvious application was number crunching. The 6502, like all chips at the time, could not perform many mathematical functions – it could add and subtract numbers; all other operations were iterations of these two functions and had to be coded by the developer. MOS Technology developed a program called KIMATH, which effectively transformed the KIM-1 into a full-function calculator. KIMATH also added the capability to handle decimal numbers with high precision. As usual, the MOS Technology documentation included with the software was outstanding, complete with a manual and assembler source code.

Another early favorite of development was music. Since the KIM-1 did not contain a native sound device, users connected a small piezoelectric speaker to a few pins on the IO port. Other hackers found a way to play music by recording beeps to the cassette tape. Once they recorded the music, they ejected the tape and played it back in an audio cassette player.
The seventies was the age of hardware hacking (hacking is used here in its original positive sense – describing experimentation in the pure spirit of inquiry), and hardware projects proved popular among KIM-1 users. One gifted 12-year-old hacker, Tod Loofbourrow, created a 70 pound, six foot tall robot using the KIM-1. Hayden Publishing approached Loofbourrow to write a book about his robot, which he subsequently wrote on yellow-lined paper. He titled his book, How to Build a Computer Controlled Robot, and it went on to become a successful publication.3

The calculator-like KIM display would seem to be a poor candidate for playing games, but games were among the most popular programs for the KIM-1. Most game adaptations were simple pen and paper mind-challenges, which ranged from the well known (Tic-Tac-Toe, Hangman, Mastermind, Maze) to the obscure (Hunt the Wumpus, NIM, Shooting Stars).
Programmers had to design their games for the minimal KIM-1 display which meant that they often had to rely on the imagination of the player. In Maze, the player could only see the walls directly surrounding the small blinking avatar. Hunt the Wumpus required the player to use a pencil and paper for working out a strategy. With such concessions, most mind games were easily adapted.
Gambling and card games were also especially well suited to the limited display. Programmers learning their craft created Blackjack, Craps, Bandit (Slot Machines), and a horseracing game.
Surprisingly, programmers even tried action games. These primitive games went by such names as Duel, Farmer Brown, Ping-Pong, and Asteroid. Duel was notable as being one of the earliest two-player games on a microcomputer. It was a simple but fun reflex game where each player watched the display and tried to hit their button first when a character appeared.
No one attempted to sell any of this early software. Programmers shared their games, copied them to tape, and widely distributed them to whoever wanted a copy. They saw games as a way to learn about programming while creating something fun. Most of these early games lived on in more advanced computers years later.
One of the earliest KIM-1 users enjoying these primitive games was Chris Crawford. Crawford delighted in the choices these games allowed and eventually programmed his first computer game using a KIM-1. Years later, Crawford developed famous games for Atari and became influential in game design theory.

Another early programmer who would gain recognition in the industry was Jim Butterfield. For Butterfield, using a KIM-1 was an adventure in exploration. His goal was to uncover the hidden secrets of the KIM-1 and pass that knowledge on to other users. Jim has the rare ability to understand complex subjects and describe them in simple terms. One of the biggest barriers to learning about microcomputers in those days was the problem of communicating knowledge since the average hacker seemed to be speaking a different language. Butterfield allowed those on the outside to enter the world of programming in comfort.
At gatherings with other KIM-1 users in his native city of Toronto, Butterfield presented his new finds to an attentive audience seeking to unlock the mysteries of the computer. One of his most popular programs was a game. The Apollo moon missions had always been closely associated with computers and the vivid pictures were still in Jim’s mind in the mid-seventies. This inspired him to write Lunar Lander, a simulation of landing on the moon. The game started with the user at the controls of a lunar module 4500 feet above the moon’s surface, and slowly descending. Players used the number keys to control the throttle. To add a sense of urgency, there were only 500 units of fuel to expend. If a player set the throttle too high, the rocket soon used all its fuel and crashed into the surface..
Rather than try to represent the scenario graphically, Jim chose to display the altitude, fuel, and rate of decent as numbers. Anyone playing would have to imagine himself huddled in a capsule with only the instrument readings to guide him. Four glowing red LED digits displayed the altitude and the right two digits represented the rate of descent.
Lunar Lander might seem primitive by today’s standards, but back in 1975 board games were the most popular games available. Snakes and Ladders, Monopoly, and Checkers were the pinnacle of gaming, so something like Lunar Lander was futuristic by comparison. Lunar Lander was a hit at conventions and gatherings, where it fascinated hobbyists. Part of the appeal was the adventure element. Individual landings could last five minutes or more, so players could become deeply engaged in a single game. For a grueling stretch while the lander descended, a player would intently study the rate of decent versus the altitude, and occasionally glimpse the fuel gauge. After four minutes, the lander would be close to the surface, and tension began to mount. If everything went just right, the player was rewarded with a SAFE message. More often, fuel ran out and the module went crashing into the lunar surface as the dreaded DEAD message flashed onto the screen.4

Jim Butterfield also created a small utility called Hypertape, which had an impact on the KIM-1 user community. Butterfield was having lunch with a friend who also owned a KIM-1, and mentioned that the unusual circuitry of the KIM-1’s cassette tape input would make it possible to enhance the speed of tape reading. “You don’t need all those 1’s and 0’s written on the tape,” he said. The friend, Julien Dubé, asked how that could be accomplished and Jim outlined his approach. The next day, Julien reported a speedup of three times. Feeling that this was a challenge, Jim looked more closely at the code, and found extra ways to accelerate the format. The final version of the program allowed data to be written six times faster. A full one-kilobyte program now only took 20 seconds to load with the standard KIM-1 system, as opposed to the regular two minutes.

Commodore Chessmate: a 6530 computer

The Chessmate is a 6530 – KIM-1 like computer. Keyboard, LED display are used as in the KIM-1. Peter Jennings, who designed this chess computer with Commodore, build upon his Microchess 1. from the KIM-1, and used the extra ROM space to enhance it to Microchess 1.5: more chess features, a chess clock, sounds, dedicated keys, status LEDs.

The 6530-024 delivers the I/O and timer and RAM used by the Chessmate, the RRIOT ROM is not used by the main ROM. The dumped ROM of the 6530 (see below) contains no recognizable data or program,

It will not be that difficult to ‘clone’ this chess computer with the information here. A 6532 can easily take the role of the 6530. A 6502 instead of a 6504, same SRAM< a 2732 or similar ROM. The ROMs  are dumped, both for an Chessmate and a Novag Chess Champion MK I

Schematic, user manual, dumped ROMs here.

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Commodore Chessmate: 6530-024 RRIOT

The Chessmate is a 6530 – KIM-1 like computer. Keyboard, LED display are used as in the KIM-1. Peter Jennings, who designed this chess computer with Commodore, build upon his Microchess 1. from the KIM-1, and used the extra ROM space to enhance it to Microchess 1.5: more chess features, a chess clock, sounds, dedicated keys, status LEDs.

The 6530-024 delivers the I/O and timer and RAM used by the Chessmate, the RRIOT ROM is not used by the main ROM. The dumped ROM (see below) contains no recognizable data or program, I would not trust this dump.

It will not be that difficult to ‘clone’ this chess computer with the information here. A 6532 can easily take the role of the 6530. A 6502 instead of a 6504, some SRAM, a 2732 or similar ROM. The ROM itself is dumped, see below.

Technical specifications

  • MOS MPS 6504 1 MHz 4 KB ROM 320 bytes RAM total
  • 6530-0024 RRIOT (of which I/O lines, timer and 64 bytes RAM are used, ROM is irrelevant
  • 256 SRAM (2x 2111)
  • 4K ROM (6332)
  • Display: Four 7 Segment LED type (which indicates either the move or the time)
  • 19 membrane keys
  • LEDs for Check, Chessmate, or whether the computer is playing black or white
  • Eight skill levels
  • Piezo loudspeaker for 14 Electronic sounds
  • Built-in chess clock
  • The computer has 32 International standard openings in its memory and tries to follow them for 16 moves
  • Chessmate plays black or white
  • Can verify position of pieces at any stage of the game
  • En passant and castling
  • Playing strength (DWZ/ELO): ca. 1050

Related, identical specifications and hardware, and (probably) the same software:

  • Novag Chess Champion MK II (A)
  • Novag Chess Champion MK II (B)
  • TEC Schachcomputer

Memory map (deduced from source of Novag MKII and hardware schematic, note that for the 6504 used this is collapsed to the smaller address space 0000-1FFF.
$8B00 RRIOT I/O
$0000 – $01FF RAM 256 bytes, stack and zeropage mirrored
$F000 – $FFFF ROM
$EC00 – $EFFF RRIOT ROM unused in main ROM
$8B80 – RRIOT RAM 64 byte

Commodore Chessmate manual
Another Commodore Chessmate manual
ROMs of early Commodore Chessmate, in two 2K parts
ROMs of Novag Chess Champion MK II
Novag Chess Champion MKII manual
Partially commented source of the ROM of Chessmate

Commodore Chessnmate, note the location of the option ROM



Photo by Commodore International Historical Society on twitter @commodoreihs

Photo by Commodore International Historical Society on twitter @commodoreihs

Photo by Commodore International Historical Society on twitter @commodoreihs

On this early Chessmate two ROMs were used, each 2K. The TTL IC on the top right was added manually and wirewrapped, the wires running from it to the ROM selection inputs.

Novag Chess Champion MK II A and B



TEC schachcomputer