New scans of KIM-1 manuals

I found new high quality scans of KIM-1 manuals on the Retro Commodore website.
That website is filled with high quality scans of Commodore publications.

High quality scans of the User, Programming, Hardware manuals. Also scans of KIM-5 related manuals like Assembler and Editor (a new one for me!).

The originals are from a German distributor, there is a sticker on the frontpage.

I thank Carsten Jensen for his invaluable work!

Manuals are added also to the KIM-1 manuals page, which did get a cleanup too.

Known 6530 variants

6530-002 $1C00-$1FFF KIM-1 listing in KIM-1 Users manual
6530-003 $1800-$1BFF KIM-1 listing in KIM-1 Users manual
6530-004 $7000-$73FF TIM Terminal Monitor, see the TIM page
6530-005 According to this OSI appnote this is an unprogrammed version of the 6530 TIM
I have only seen ads for this part without further description of what this is.
It has the 16 I/O lines, 64 word RAM and the timer, which can generate an IRQ. One can assume the ROM is empty.

6530-006 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC6)
6530-007 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC3)
6530-008 Allied Leisure pinball version 1 (IC5)
6530-009 Allied Leisure pinball (IC5)
6530-010 Allied Leisure pinball (IC6)
6530-011 Allied Leisure / Fascination pinball (IC3)

6530-012 Gottlieb System 1 sound board (R3014-12)
6530-013 Gottlieb System 1 sound board (R3014-13)
6530-014 Gottlieb System 80 series sound board (R3016-11)
6530-016 Used in Gottlieb system 80/80A/80B sound boards

6530-024 Commodore Chessmate (based upon Peter Jenning’s MicroChess)

6530-241 MIOT in pinball machines
6530-243 MIOT in pinball machines

Commodore diskdrives ROM at $FC00-$FFFF

901466-01 6530-??? 2040 DOS 1.0 Shugart SA390 2040, 3040 and 4040
901466-02 6530-028 4040 DOS 1.2 Shugart SA390 2040, 3040 and 4040
901466-04 6530-034 8050 DOS 2.0 DOS 2.1 Shugart SA390
901483-02 6530-036 8050 DOS 2.5
901483-03 6530-038 8050 DOS 2.5 Micropolis 1006-II (8050)
901483-04 6530-039 8050 DOS 2.5 Tandon TM100-3M (8050)
901884-01 6530-040 8X50 DOS 2.7 Tandon TM100-3M (8050) Tandon TM100-4M (8250)
901885-01 6530-044 8X50 DOS 2.7 Micropolis ???
901885-04 6530-047 8X50 DOS 2.7 Micropolis 1006-II (8050) Micropolis 1006-IV (8250) Micropolis 1106-II (Safari, mit Garagentor, 8050) Micropolis 1106-IV (Safari, mit Garagentor, 8250)
901869-01 6530-048 DOS 2.7 M.P.I. 101SM (8050)M.P.I. 102?? (8250)
251256-02 6530-050 8250 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570-2 (8250LP)
251257-02A 2716 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570 (SFD-1001) Matsushita JU-570-2 (SFD-1001)
251474-01B 2716 DOS 2.7 Matsushita JU-570-2 (8250LP)

Replacing the 6530-002 and -003 in a KIM-1 has become quite easy. See this page on replacements with a 6532, some glue logic and a (E)EPROM.

The RRIOT in CBM disk drives are only different in the ROM contents The rest is as follows:

– Pin 18 is PB6 (no CS1).
– Pin 19 is CS2 (noPB5) .
– Pin 17 (PB7/IRQ) has no Pullup.
– ROM is in $FC00 bis $FFFF (RS0=0, CS1=X, CS2=1).
– RAM is in $0000 bis $003F (RS0=1, CS1=X, CS2=0, A9=,0 A8=0, A7=0, A6=0).
– I/O is on $0080 bis $00BF (RS0=1, CS1=X, CS2=0, A9=,0 A8=0, A7=1, A6=0).

Logic of addressing:

 	RS0	CS1	CS2	A9	A8	A7	A6
ROM	0	X	1	-	-	-	-
RAM	1	X	0	0	0	0	0
IO	1	X	0	0	0	1	0

Via an adapter board Commodore reused older 6530’s with new firmware by disabling the built in ROM and adding a 2716.
See Zimmers Commodore archive. Note that not just any 6530 can be used in this way, only the 6530’s from the Commodore diskdrives. A more general approach with a 6532 is described here.

Most if the information on this pages is also found on the pages of Martin Hoffman Vetter

Micro Technology Unlimited MTU pages enhanced

Dave Plummer (Dave’s Garage) received lots of documents on the MTU products with his KIM-1 in a cage system and scanned them for us.

Dave Williams (devilishdesign, vintagetech) has a MT-130, a standalone 6502 system sold by MTU with MTU cards and also scanned documents and imaged floppies.

On the internet I also found a stash of MTU products documents for the PET computer, like PET versions of the K-1008, a KIM-1 bus adapter and more.

All this made me add pages to my website, devoted to MTU. Special attention to the genius behind MTU, Hal Chamberlin. Several of his articles about music and microprocessors and a clean scan of his book Musical Applications of Microprocessors .

One of the documents is the “K-1008-2L Patches to Microsoft BASIC”. Software source of the integration of the text and graphic routines into Microsoft Basic. I already did a simple integration of the K-1008 as terminal into Basic with the Graphics Software package SDTXT and VMSUP, so I have already a lot of the code. So this source wil be typed in also!


MTU history: Hal Chamberlin

Micro Technology was around 1980 a manufacturer of products aimed at the KIM-1 and AIM 65 and SYM-1 user. Later on they made the MTU-130 computer around the 6502 and a compact version the MT-140. After the founder and technical genius Hal Chamberlin left in 1986, it became focussed on software like Karaoke.

From the current MTU website:

In 1960 in the 7th grade, David B. Cox and Howard (Hal) A. Chamberlin, Jr. became lab partners and close friends. In 1966 as a college freshman, Hal designed his own digital computer (the HAL 4096) using scrap IBM magnetic core memory planes and logic cards. David worked with Hal to design, etch and build Printed Circuit boards, select and purchase components, wirewrap the backplane and generally support Hal’s monumental effort. The HAL4096 was demonstrated publicly at the 1968 NC State University Engineer´s Fair.

At the 1967 NC State Engineer´s Fair, Hal demonstrated a punch card deck program of Do loops tuned to play the song Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer do …. This ran on the campus IBM 1630 computer. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) was so intense out of the computer that Hal used it as the output signal to his transistor radio! This was one of the first public showings of a computer music synthesis program.

In 1968, Hal wrote a second synthesis program that computed audio sample voltages, giving control over the harmonic content and duration of notes and chords, based on the Nyquist Theorem of digital sampling. This ran on the Biomathematics Dept. Ambilog computer with two D/A converters used to drive an HP analog X-Y plotter to generate the analog audio output recorded to a Revox tape deck. Music synthesis pioneers had to be resourceful to get their analog outputs from early digital computers!

In February 1971, after graduating from NC State with BS degrees in Electrical Engineering, David incorporated Technology Unlimited Inc. (TUI) with Hal as Vice President. Hal continued at NCSU in Electrical Engineering and received his Masters. In 1973, for a Singer-Kearfott contract, we designed and built an 18-bit A/D converter with an Intel 8008 microprocessor controlling it. This A/D design delivered a true 18-bits (all valid and without noise) for more than five years.

On March 1, 1976, David sold TUI to Hendrix electronics, the leader in Text Publishing systems for newspapers. TUI had developed the world’s leading microprocessor-floppy disc based, display word processor system. David had independently negotiated with Olivetti and A.B. Dick Co. for 2.5 years, but neither could make up their minds to take TUI’s product to market. Eventually, A.B. Dick bought the product line in 1980 and sold over $1 billion dollars worth between 1980-84.

On March 1, 1977, while still employed by Hendrix, David and Hal started Micro Technology Unlimited. Our goal then and still today is to Bring microcomputer digital audio down to everyone. Our designs are visionary and improve the creativity, productivity and quality of audio communications. It has been a real trip through the 1968-2004 period in digital audio!

In 1979, Hal’s book Musical Applications of Microprocessors was first published. It quickly became the definitive work for digital audio. Developers worldwide visited MTU to talk with us on design concepts. In 1986 Ray Kurzweil (Kurzweil Music Systems), after three years of personal offers, hired Hal away from MTU.

Some of Hal Chamberlin’s publications:

Musical applications of microprocessors, Hal Chamberlin.
1980, First Edition.
Clean scan made by Hans Otten, 2023
Byte Magazine 1977 09
A Sampling of Techniques for Computer Performance of Music
Hal Chamberlin
Byte Magazine 1980 04
Advanced Real-Time Synthesis Techniques
Hal Chamberlin
Software Keyboard interface for the KIM-1.
Hal Chamberlin
1981 01 Simulation of Musical Instruments
Hal Chamberlin
The Computer Hobbyist Magazine, 1974 -1976
Hal Chamberlin as Contributing Editor


CODOS (Channel Oriented Disk Operating System) is the name of the Disk Operating System made by MTU for KIM-1, SYM-1 and AIM-65.
It required the K-1013 floppy disk controller, 8 inch disk drive(s) and optional the K-1008 Visible Memory.

CODOS V2 was the version for the MT-130/140. Numerous software was available, see the MT-130 page for manuals.
Dave Plummer (of Dave’s Garage) has a KIM-1 system with various MTU cards, including the K-1013.

CODOS Disk images

CODOS Manuals

CODOS Manual
CODOS User Manual
CODOS User Manual OCR’ed
QumeTrak 842 Maintenance Manual

Dave Williams has the following, not yet dumped by him, disks:

  • MACASM 1.0
  • MAGIC/L Language
  • MTU-C
  • MTU-FORTH79 2.1
  • WOPDPIC 1.0 NEC 8023 Printer Version
  • MTU-130 User Group Diskette #3
  • MTU-140 User Group Diskette #5

Johnson McShane brochures

Johnson Computer was an important distributor of KIM-1 products, for MOS Technology, Microsoft and more. Previously they used the name McShane.

It was the firm who brought Microsoft Basic for the KIM-1 to me, see the KIM-1 manuals for their KB-9 document

Documents contributed by Kevin Johnson (of Johnson Computers) via Dave McMurtrie.

Johnson Computer Ads
McShane MOS documents


MOS Technology KIM-1 Brochures and Newsletters

Brochure KIM-1
Commodore KIM-1 Commercial
KIM-1 brochure
kim-1 order form
KIM-1 Product Brochure
MOS Technology brochure
MOS Technology newsletter February 1976
MOS Technology April 1976 customer update
Customer Errata Letters
Customer Errata Letter 1
Customer Errata Letter 2
Customer Errata Letter 3

MTU K-1008 Visable Memory

All about the MTU K-1008 Visible Memory: documents, programs, images, videos and replica, you find it here.
The MTU K-1008 is an 8K memory and video display board. Part of the MTU family of card cages and RAM/ROM boards, around 1978 for KIM-1, SYM-1, AIM 65. Later also for Commodore PET systems.

I have some K-1008 information on paper as Fall Catalog and K-1008 User manuals of MTU, the listings in the Graphics software Package and hires photos of the board.

Triggered by Dave Plummer, who owns a K-1008 and made some demo programs I added this spring the K-1008 as peripheral to the KIM-1 Simulator.
A basic working version, with memory settings as the original. A 6502 program in the simulator could fill the video display.
Dave made nice youtube videos about his KIM-1 system with MTU cards in a card cage, see Dave’s Garage.

Then Eduardo Casino, of KIM-1 Replica fame, started to design a replica, including an expansion bus. He motivated me to enhance the Simulator.

Eduardo also OCR’ed and typed in the Graphics Software Package programs for the MTU K-1008. I played with the sources and coupled the text display programs to Microsoft KB9 Basic.

He made a quick and dirty binary image to show on the K-1008 video display. I took his idea and added a facility to the Simulator to load any image to the K-1008.
This requires the use of GIMP, the image handling program, to create intermediate black and white 320×200 files as ‘C header files’.
These C header file can be imported in the Simulator and shown on the display. A command line utility LoadK1008 converts these C header files to a binary image in K-1008 format.

All this required a page with all the K-1008 information: documents, programs, images, videos and replica, you find it here.

Update 10 september: Eduardo Casino has made available his work on the Graphics Software Package: OCR’ed manual, listings, sources, binaries made with 64tass assembler.

KIM-1 Simulator 1.3.0 -> 1.3.4

KIM-1 Simulator 1.3.x adds the improvements from the 1.2.x branch to the V1.1.8 branch.

NEw improvements also: bundled with the also recently updated Convert 8 bit Hex formats program and the SST switch now turns on the built-in debugger!
1.3.1 Adds refresh of K-1008 memory with File/tapeload and debugger refresh.
1.3.2 Load C header image files into K-1008 video display, and command line utility to convert C header file to K-1008 binary
1.3.3 Adds a more realistic aspect ratio variant of the K-1008 display besides the simpler and therefore faster ones.
V 1.3.4 August 31 Read text file to console improved, improved K-1008 settings

Have fun with this release and as always: keep me posted of wishes and bugs.

You may ask, but this will never be more than a simulation and not a real KIM-1 emulator, many First Book of KIM programs that manipulate the LED displays will not work in this simulator architecture. TTY programs work well. Use the debugger!



VKIM is a KIM-1 emulator written for the Palm OS.

A Basic KIM-1 is emulated. With tape I/O, program load or save. Source included.

I do not own a Palm. But a PALM can be emulated. An excellent browser based one is CloudPilot .

You need a Palm OS ROM and VKIM. I packed PALM OS 5 ROM and the application VKIM in this archive.

The vKIM program emulates a M6502 processor with approximately the resources of a KIM-1: it has a keypad and display, 4 Kb of RAM (the standard KIM-1 had 1 Kb), 2 Kb of ROM containing a patched version of the ROM on a KIM-1 (more on that in a bit), 128 bytes of RAM at $1780-$17FF, and a simulated TTY. The I/O and timer resources of the two 6530 support chips are not emulated.

The interface that is implemented on the keypad is identical to the actual KIM-1 interface — because it is implemented by the KIM-1 software.

As a convenience the NMI vector at $17FA-$17FB and the IRQ vector at $17FE-$17FF are automatically set to $1C00 when vKIM is initially started, and when the “Clear all RAM” menu option is selected.

Emulated RAM is cleared only by explicit action — when vKIM is exited all RAM is saved, and restored when vKIM is restarted.


The standard KIM-1 keypad is the interface that vKIM displays when started up. Since the use of this keypad is entirely a matter for the KIM-1 documentation, I will mention only the differences here. First, the SST switch has been replaced with a checkbox. When checked, SST mode is active; unchecking the box is equivalent to turning the SST switch to the “off” position. Further, as a convenience the locations $00EF-$00F5 are fomratted and displayed to the left of the keypad when SST mode is active.

Finally, there is a button labelled “TTY”. When this button is pressed, the keypad disappears and the TTY interface is displayed.


When TTY mode is selected (by pressing the “TTY” button on the keypad screen) a “TTY” emulator is displayed. This display includes “CR”, “LF”, and “Rubout” buttons, since these are not readily available through Graffiti input. All other input, however, is to be entered in the Graffiti area. As a convenience to the user (and to emulate the limitations of a real TTY) lower-case alpha input is translated to upper-case before being sent to the emulated KIM-1. As a result, it is not possible in the current version of vKIM to enter lower-case data to the emulated KIM-1. Feedback on whether this is a hardship will be taken into account for future releases.

Also, as a convenience a Rubout character is automatically generated when entering TTY mode. Thus, the “KIM” prompt will appear as soon as TTY mode is entered, without requiring the user to press “Rubout” first (as on a real KIM-1).

Finally, there is a button labelled “Keypad” which will return the program to the keypad interface.

Under the “File” menu (press the Keypad label e.g.) are:

* “Create vTape…”
Saves which saves a copy of a specified range of addresses to a simulated or “virtual” tape;

* “Load vTape…”
Restores saved data from a vTape back into RAM (at the same location it was saved from);

* “Delete vTape”
Deletes a saved vTape;

* “Import…”
Loads data into RAM from a Memo Pad entry. The memo bust begin with “; vKIM”, and be followed by data in either dump format, or the paper tape format described in Appendix F of the KIM-1 User Manual. (Samples of both formats are shown below.)

Under the “Edit” menu are:

* “Copy block…”
Copies a block of data from one location in memory to another (no special provision is made for overlapping source and destination);

* “Clear block…”
Sets a specified range of addresses to $00;

* “Clear all RAM”
Sets all of RAM (including the block at $1780-$17FF) to $00, except for the IRQ and NMI vectors, which are set to $1C00;

* “Restart”
Emulates a processor restart.

Under “Ref”

* “Locations”
Lists system-use locations in page zero.

Under “Options”

* “Preferences”
Does nothing. Essentially a placeholder for options that may be implemented in the future.

* “About vKIM”
Gives information about the version of vKIM, and distribution information.

Import formats

Sample of of a memo pad item in “dump format”:

;vKIM BAGELS from First Book of KIM
0200 E6 16 20 40 1F D0 F9 D8 A9 0A 85 18 A9 03 85 10
0210 38 A5 13 65 16 65 17 85 12 A2 04 B5 12 95 13 CA
0220 10 F9 A6 10 A0 C0 84 11 A0 06 C5 11 90 02 E5 11
0230 46 11 88 D0 F5 18 69 0A 95 00 C6 10 10 D2 C6 18
0240 30 7A A9 00 A2 0C 95 04 CA 10 FB 20 CE 02 F0 FB
0250 20 CE 02 F0 F6 A5 08 F0 08 29 60 49 60 F0 A9 D0
0260 DD 20 6A 1F C9 10 B0 E3 C9 0A 90 DF A8 A6 10 E6
0270 10 B9 E7 1F 95 04 98 D5 00 D0 03 E6 0E 8A 95 0A
0280 A5 07 F0 31 A0 03 B9 0A 00 29 18 F0 12 B9 00 00
0290 A2 03 D5 0A F0 05 CA 10 F9 30 04 E6 0F 16 0A 88
02A0 10 E4 A2 01 B4 0E B9 E7 1F 95 08 CA 10 F6 20 CE
02B0 02 E6 0F D0 F9 20 CE 02 D0 FB F0 8F A2 03 B4 00
02C0 B9 E7 1F 95 04 CA 10 F6 A9 E3 85 08 D0 E0 A0 13
02D0 A2 05 A9 7F 8D 41 17 B5 04 8C 42 17 8D 40 17 E6
02E0 11 EA EA 88 88 CA 10 EF 20 40 1F 60

Sample of of a memo pad item in “paper tape format”:

;vKIM sample ptape format