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My first KIM-1

In 1978 I bought my first computer, a KIM-1. It turned out to be a Rockwell rebadged Rev F Mos Technology board.

The beginning of lots of fun, learning, member of the KIM gg Club and making and publishing in the dutch electronics magazine Radio Bulletin and the KIM Kenner.

In 2014 the big KIM-1 machine was finally taken down, the following photos showed the end result of many years of tinkering.

First the KIM-1, I still have it, in working condition, in my private museum. Changes still visible are a red acryl cover over the LED displays, a capacitor moved to the back to make it flat enough to fit the case I made and some supports to have it lay stable and safe on a table.

The first case I built from alu profiles contained the KIM-1, a backplane for 6 memory boards, a lot of power supplies (lineair, so heat was a problem!), a patch panel to access the expansion connector, cassette I/O, serial interface and various switches.


Memory 2K RAM Card, BEM Bus Brutech Variant made by Hans Otten
Memory boards were made myself by drawing with Edding ink on the blank PCB, etching and drilling. Filled with 2102 RAM IC’s for 1K per board, it filled lower RAM of the KIM-1 $0400 – $13FF. The bus is a 31 pin DIN connector, based upon the BEM (Brutech) bus.


The next thing I built was a video display unit. All TTL 74XX logic IC’s, a 2513 character generator, a AY-5-1013 character generator, an ASCII keyboard, display on TV 32×32 characters uppercase. RS232 input/output to the KIM-1.
On top of the VDU a dual cassette deck is shown. From the famous dutch dump shop Radio Service Twente two audio cassette decks were bought, some audio amplifiers and power supply added, and a remote control circuit via a 6532 GPIO line (standard as in Micro Ade). Served me well for many years, in 2014 the decks strings were dried out and crumbled after many years of not being used.

Next was a real expansion cabinet with a long backplane for 32K memory with 8x 4K RAM card, 2114 based, Designed by me, published in Radio Bulletin and sold by Visser Assembling Electronics. BEM bus compatible.

4K SRAM card

4K SRAM card, Radio Bulletin September 1979 part 1  part 2


Production 4K RAM card


Prototype 4K RAM card

In the expansion cabinet three slots were added for I/O. Two cards were designed by me and published in Radio Bulletin: an ACIA card for two 6850 Motorola ICs, and a PIA card for two PIAs, 6522 or 6520 or 6820 or 6821. I never used more than one ACIA and one PIA card. Shown are the prototype cards, in the article production quality PCBs were used.

PIA and VIA card design by Hans Otten June 1984 Radio Bulletin

ACIA Motorola 6850 by Hans Otten, 1983 Radio Bulletin

On one of the ACIAs a VT100 Digital Equipment terminal was connected, taking over from the bit banged serial interface and the homebuilt video display. ON the other ACIA a Heathkit H14 matrix printer was added, a mediocre but adequate printer.

Together with Micro Ade as assembler and editor, the dual cassette deck, 40K RAM In total, this was a nice machine! Until 1987, when I bought the Spectravideo X’Press 738 MSX and CP/M system, used for all my publishing activities.

A third expansion cabinet was built around 1983. It was driven by the PIA’s, the Radio Bulletin Grafisch Display was inside the cabinet, along with two MDCR Philips Digital cassette recorders, alo published in Radio Bulletin. The speed difference between Hypertape audio cassettes and 2400 baud MDCR speed was not that impressive.

KIM-1 software

Software

Microsoft KB-9 Basic, dated 1977
KB-9 stands for Kim-Basic with 9 digits precision. Runs fine.Scanned manual The original KB9 and Version 3.0
Version 3 has character input/output redirected to an ACIA routine, so it will not work on a standard KIM-1.
Focal V3dThe program in binary format The Focal programming language Version 3d for the KIM-1A small interpreter (about 5K) for a convenient interpreted language.
Requires memory from $2000 and up. Has some terminal echo problems.
The scanned manual
Disassembled source by Paul R. Santa-Maria
KIM-1
Micro-ADE assembler/editor

Micro-Ade program
Original Micro-Ade program in Papertape format, ready for the Micro-KIM. Requires 32K RAM expansion and the three! fixes for the decode problem of 6530 RAM areas.
Micro-ADE was the working horse for many KIM-1 users, the small and powerfull assembler/editor written by Peter Jennings.
Manual and program are placed here with permission by Peter Jennings (thank you Peter for this and for a great program!).
Scanned manual
Source in scanned format (from a bad photocopy):
editor
assembler
i/o
The frontpage is shown on the right.Also this program was enhanced by the KIM Club, resulting in version 9.0, present in the program archive.
Page 1 and 2 of the command summary.
Read in the KIM KENNER archive the source of the enhancements (text by S.T. Woldringh o.a.).
KIM-1
KIM-1
KIM Tape Copy v1.1, copy all files on a KIM cassette. Uses two recorders attached as shown in Micro Ade manual.
Source in PDF format  kim tape copy v11

KIM-1 manuals

Manuals delivered with the KIM-1.


User Manual


User manual in HTML format
User manual in PDF format (note page 18-25 of the ROM listing is missing)
Appendix with complete ROM listing in PDF format

Hardware Manual January 1976 Second Edition Publications Number 6500-10A


Hardware Manual in ASCII format
MCS6500 Hardware Manual jan 1976 second edition in PDF format
Hardware manual in HTML format

Programming Manual


Programming Manual in PDF format
Programming Manual in HTML format
Programming manual appendix in HTML format

Cross Assembler manual

Scan-160408-0001
Cross assembler Manual, GE timeshare

KIM hints


KIM-1 Hints PDF format
KIM-1 Hints smaller PDF format
KIM-1 Hints in text format
KIM-1 Hints in text format with additions and corrections

KIM-1 circuit diagram


Rockwell branded circuit diagram
KIM-1 poster in high resolution, large picture!

First Book of KIM


The First Book of KIM-1 in PDF format
The First Book of KIM-1, part in text format
The First Book of KIM-1 in HTML format
Sources of The First Book of KIM-1 in source and papertape format, Jeff Tranter

AIM 65

AIM 65 was Rockwells SBC in the tradiotion of KIM-1 and VIM/SYM-1, sharing the Applicatioonand Expansion connector designs, so add-ons could be used on all three. The Keypad/LED was replaced with a full keybaord and 20 character display, making it more a desktop computer than a SBC.

The Rockwell AIM-65 computer was a development computer introduced in 1978 based on the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor. Available software included a line-oriented machine code monitor, BASIC interpreter, assembler, Pascal, PL/65, and FORTH development system. Later developments were the AIM 65/40 (40 character display, memory banks) and the RM 65 card based development system. After 1984 Rockwell stopoped with the AIM 65 and RM 65 product lines.

Advanced Interactive Monitor is a SBC with a 6502 at 1 MHz, 1-4K RAM, 20 colums alphanumeric display, full ASCII keyboard.

AIM 65 Manuals and software
My AIM 65s
AIM 65 Interactive newsletter
Application Notes, datasheets, other articles and AIM 65/40 information
RM 65 modular card based modules

Technical specifications
– Built-in full sized QWERTY keyboard
– 20 character alphanumeric LED display (16 segments)
– Integrated 20 character thermal printer
– 20mA current-loop serial interface (can be adapted to RS232)
– Expansion connector (KIM-1 compatible)
– Application connector with 6522 VIA chip
– 4 KB RAM
– 5 sockets for 4 KB ROM/EPROM chips

The AIM memory map is:
$0000-$9FFF: RAM (early Rockwell versions only had $0000-$0FFF on board).
$A000-$AFFF: I/O & scratchpad memory; some areas can be made available for more RAM.
$B000-$CFFF: Optional Language ROMs (BASIC, Forth, PL/65, Pascal).
$D000-$DFFF: Optional Assembler or Mathpack
$E000-$FFFF: Firmware and monitor program

Rockwell produced the AIM 65 until 1985, and manufactured by Dynatem under license in early 1986 after Rockwell had ceased production. Though the Revision 4 AIM 65 is quite similar to earlier iterations, the subsequent Revision 5 hardware features a redesigned clock generator and support for newer RAM and ROM IC types which became available over the production lifespan of the AIM 65. Relative to Rockwell-manufactured examples, the Dynatem AIM 65 is quite rare. See the Manuals and Software page for circuit diagrams revisions.


De PC 100 getest
, an article by me, Hans Otten, August 1980, in Radio Bulletin about the Siemens PC100, an AIM 65 with a case, german documentation and sold by Siemens, Brutech in the Netherlands.

SYM-1

On this page a collection of available SYM-1 hardware and software.

SYM-1 Manuals and sofware

SYM-Physis The SYM-1 USers’ Group newsletter


SYM-1 manuals

Reference manual second printing August 1978

Reference manual third printing June 1979

Designed by Ray Holt, of Jolt and Superjolt fame

Technical Notes, April 1979

SYM-1 Theory of Operation Hardware by Tom Peck

SYM-1 Theory of Operation Monitor by Tom Peck

Synertek Programming manual

Hardware manual

Microprocessing fundamentals, SYM-1
Seminar workbook, Raymond N. Bennett and John Stockdale, 12/1/79

Reference cards

SYM-1 monitor

The SYM-1 monitor, Supermon, is described in the Reference manual, see above.
Written by Manny Lomas, of TIM-1 and RAP fame.

Two versions of the monitor were shipped, Version 1.0 and Version 1.1.
Version SY1.1 the second release of Supermon, is described in a separate manual.
Appendix M describing the version 1.1 Monitor enhancements and listing.

The ROM contains Supermon, the machine monitor, the audio cassette functions and the boot ROM function (vectors asn such aare cleverly loaded into RAM by some hardware tricks with protected RAM at upper memory.

SYM-1 RAE

Written by Manny Lomas, of TIM-1 and RAP fame. RAE is an optional ROM.
An assembler and editor in 8K.
RAE-1 Reference manual.

Reference cards, click for larger view.

Sources

9600 baud patch, Disassembler for RAE, RAE to ASCII converter, Cross referencer, all in RAE source format

SYM-1 Basic

One of the Microsoft 6502 Basic versions, made for the SYM-1.
Two versions were made. The first came as two 4K ROMS, V1.1 as one 8K ROM. ROM ID BAS 023-0025A.
The tri-goniometric functions, an option at startup are documented in the Basic manual as hex dump or on page 27 in the Technotes
There were two versions of the BASIC ROMs available.

  • A two ROM set (part numbers 02-0019-01 and 02-0020-1). These went into sockets U21 and U22 respectively.
  • A single ROM (part number 02-0058 A/B). This went into socket U21. It’s 8K and it’s position dependent. It fits in from $C000 to $DFFF.

The 8k Basic has tokens but no code for the trig functions. There’s an application note which invites you to type in the hex and save to tape the approx 512 extra bytes needed. See page 30 of the tech notes.

The 1981 manual shows the correct jumpers for an 8K ROM in U21. The 1978 manual shows the correct jumpers for two 4K ROMs in U21 and U22

BASIC Manual second printing.

BXT_1200 is just 1285 useful bytes, and then filled with FF. It contains the strings PERFECT MATCH!, COMPARE ERROR AT, CHECK SUM ERROR! and INVALID DELETE RANGE!

BXT_0200 is a full 4k bytes, and contains these strings:
FOUND LOADING SEARCHING FOR SAVING CALL STIME EDIT PAGE TRACE CHAIN EXEC PAGE EXTENDED SYM-BASIC BY JOHN W. BROWN COPYRIGHT (C) 1980 SATURN SOFTWARE LIMITED

MOD-68, MOD-69, SYM-1/68, SYM-1/69

The MOD-69 and MOD-68 replace the 6502 with a Motorola 6809 or 6802 CPU on an adaptor board and the Monitor is replaced  with a new ROM with a new Supermon.


Scans from Synertek Products Guide.

There were also SYM-1s available with the Motorola processor: SYM-1/68 and SYM-1/69.

SYM-1/69 SYM-1 supplement manual

ROM of MOD 69, 2-9002-129 MOD 69 Hi 2-9002-12 MOD 69 Lo
PROM 82S129 of MOD 69 (2103 marked IC in photos below


SYM-1 Pascal

Pascal manual

SYM-1 Forth

SK Forth 79 Users Guide , PDF of Source listing

SYM-1 XRAY Extended RAE, manual and listing

SYM-1 XRAY Extended RAE, manual and listing


SYM-Physis The SYM-1 Users’ Group newsletter

Published from issue 0 September 1979 until the last issue 17 Winter 1983

SYM-Physis Issue 0
SYM-Physis Issue 1
SYM-Physis Issue 2
SYM-Physis Issue 3
SYM-Physis Issue 4
SYM-Physis Issue 5-6
SYM-Physis Issue 7
SYM-Physis Issue 8
SYM-Physis Issue 9
SYM-Physis Issue 10
SYM-Physis Issue 11
SYM-Physis Issue 12
SYM-Physis Issue 13-14
SYM-Physis Issue 15
SYM-Physis Issue 16
SYM-Physis Issue 17

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Synertek SYM KTM

Synertek, Inc. was an American semiconductor manufacturer founded in 1973. The initial founding group consisted of Bob Schreiner (from Fairchild), Dan Floyd, Zvi Grinfas, Jack Balletto, and Gunnar Wetlesen. The manufacturing technology was MOS/LSI. Initial products included custom designed devices, as well as a line of standard products (static RAMs, ROMs, dynamic and static shift registers) and then, sometime before 1979, second sourced versions of MOS Technology’s successful 6502 8-bit microprocessor, and the (less successful) Philips/Signetics 2650 processor and Zilog Z8 microcomputer.
Major customers included Atari (for its video game product line their biggest customer at a certain point of time) and Apple Computer (for its Apple II computer). In the days leading up to the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire, Steve Wozniak chose to use a Synertek ROM chip for the Apple II, which was revealed at the event, after a chip from American Megatrends didn’t arrive on time.


Synertek Databook 1983 Chapter 5 Systems

SYM-1/VIM-1
SYM-2
Build a SYM-1: SYM-1 mini and maxi SBC
KTM-2 series video terminals
KTM-3 series video terminals

My VIM-1:



Synertek acquired Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, consisting of engineers Manny Lemas and Ray Holt, after which it was renamed Synertek Systems, Inc. and established as a subsidiary. In 1978, Synertek Systems released a 6502-based single board computer/evaluation kit called the SYM-1, a derivative of MOS Technology/Commodore Semiconductor Group’s KIM-1.
Synertek’s semiconductor fabrication plant in Santa Clara, California operated from 1974 to 1985. Sometime after 1979, Synertek was acquired by Honeywell and set up as a subsidiary. Later, around 1983, construction began for an additional manufacturing facility in Santa Cruz, California. There was Superfund attention to pollution at the Synertek factory site. When market conditions deteriorated, primarily because of business downturns at Atari, work was stopped at the Santa Cruz facility and it was later sold. Honeywell shut down operations at Synertek in 1985 and assets were sold off (from Wikipedia).

Part of Chapter 5, systems, of the Synertek Databook 1983, note the Jolt was still available.



The end of Synertek Systems in 1985:


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Jolt and Super Jolt

On this page some information on the Jolt and Super Jolt are presented, the result of a Internet research for Kolt, Super Jolt and Microcomputer Associates. Thsi small company played an inmportant role in the 6502 SBCs, TIM, KIM-1 and SYM-1 all contain results of their work.

Jolt
Super Jolt

Jolt

Jolt was the first 6502 singleboard computer. On December 1975, the coveted inside-front-cover of Byte magazine contained a two-page advertisement for “the world’s lowest cost computer system”. This was perhaps the first non-MOS Technology 6502 based computer system to come to market, The computer was named Jolt, and it was marketed by Microcomputer Associates Inc. (MAI) as both a kit for $249, or fully assembled and tested for $348 (Dec. 1975 Byte). Microcomputer Associates also sold add-ons for the basic system. They included 4 kilobytes for $265, an I/O card for $96, and a power supply for $145. Either at that time or shortly later MAI expanded the line to a RAM card and an EPROM card using 2702 PROMS. The boards were about 4″x6″ arranged in a vertical stack jointed by a ribbon cable. Only 5 volt power was needed. Software available in PROM was RAP (Resident Assembler Program) and Tiny Basic from Tom Pittman.

As can be seen in the photos of the Jolt front, back and experimenters card below, the system is quite simple. In fact it is a TIM system (the 6530-004 is the middle IC), with a 6502 at the right and a 6820 PIA on the right. Some glue logic on the right and the top, RAM on the bottom (4x 2111 for 512 byte memory) and RS232 TTY interface at the right (1488, 1489 line drivers). The system clock was a RC at 750 KHz, in the photo the clock is a 1 MHz crystal added later.
The TIM IC, 6530-004,contains the ROM (1K), timers, 128 byte RAM, 16 I/O) and 64 bytes RAM. The PIA 6820 adds another 16 bit I/O.

Jolt was designed and developed by Ray Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT. This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A.I. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, so they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!
Synertek acquired Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, consisting of engineers Manny Lemas and Ray Holt, after which it was renamed Synertek Systems, Inc. and established as a subsidiary. In 1978, Synertek Systems released a 6502-based single board computer/evaluation kit called the SYM-1, a derivative of MOS Technology/Commodore Semiconductor Group’s KIM-1. The Super Jolt was still sold by Synertek in 1985 (see the Super Jolt 


JOLT SPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY

(See the Microcomputer Associates Catalog in PDF format here)
• MOS Technology 6502 CPU
• MOS Technology 6530 with DEbug MONitor (a 653-004 TIM)
• 750 KHz clock operation-RC controlled or crystal controlled with user supplied crystal.
• 512 bytes RAM
• 64 bytes RAM-located at interrupt vector locations
• Expandable address & data lines
• Direct drive to 8 K bytes of memory
• 26 Programmable I/O lines
• Two hardware interrupts
• Serial interface for 20 ma current loop and EIA RS232C
• 4.25″ x 7″ printed circuit card
• Compatible with other JOLT cards

JOLT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The JOLT system consists of a set of modular microcomputer boards which can be used singly or tied together to produce any desired microcomputer system configuration. The minimum system is one CPU board. which alone constitutes a viable computer system complete with central processor. 1/0. interrupts. timer. read/write memory. and a complete software debug monitor in read-only memory. Additional boards in the JOLT system include a 4 K byte RAM , 1/0. Power Supply and blank Universal Interface board. A large JOLT system could have up to 32 K bytes of RAM memory. up to 128 lines of bidirectional 110 and 16 interrupts. JOLT boards come in kit form or assembled. and are ready to use in any form. from home hobby kits to industrial applications. All JOLT components are new. fully tested and fully warranted by MAI.

CPU
The internal oscillator operates in a “free run” mode with a capacitor and variable resistor supplied on the CPU printed circuit board. The frequency of oscillation may be adjusted with the variable resistor. If a very stable clock is required by the system a crystal may be added to the CPU board.
The RESET input to the CPU is pulled to logic ground by an RC circuit (t=33 milliseconds) on the printed circuit board. The CPU normally fetches a new program count vector from hex locations FFFC and FFFD upon activation of the RESET line, but these locations are in the interrupt vector RAM and therefore volatile. Hardware on the CPU board causes the CPU to begin executing the monitor program by forcing the effective sixteenth bit of the address bus  to a logic ZERO during reset. As a result, the RESET function on the JOLT CPU card causes the debug monitor (DEMON) to begin executing.
There are two interrupt inputs to the CPU. One interrupt is maskable under program control (IRQ) and the other (NMI) is not.
A READY control line provides for asynchronous operation with slow memory or I/O devices.
The address bus (A0-A15). the data bus (00-07). the two phase clock (PHI). the reset line (RESET). the interrupt lines (IRQ and NMI). and the ready line (RDY) are all available at the edge connector of the CPU board. The loading restrictions should be considered when using the signal lines driven by the CPU for external system expansion.

Program RAM
There are 512 bytes of program RAM provided on the CPU card. The program RAM is hardwired addressed as the first 512 bytes of the CPU’s 64 K of memory address space. It may become necessary to remove these RAM’s from their sockets if a 4 K memory card is also hardwired in this address space. The program RAM on the CPU card uses NMOS RAM chips type 2111, 512×4 bytes.

Monitor ROM and Interrupt Vector RAM
The monitor ROM is located in the last 1 K bytes of the lower half of memory space (first 32 K bytes). The interrupt vector RAM is located in the last 64 bytes of the 64 K memory address space. The monitor ROM and the interrupt vector RAM as well as additional I/0 are implemented with a single 6530 chip, the 6530-004 TIM

Programmable User I/0
The programmable I/0 lines available from the CPU card are provided by a Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) and a 6530 ROM chip. The PIA has two 8-bit 1/0 ports with two interrupt-causing control  lines each. Two jumpers are provided on the card which connects one or both PIA interrupt outputs to the CPU IRQ interrupt line. Refer to the CPU assembly drawing for proper identification of the jumpers. A Data Direction Register for each port determines whether each 1/0 line is an input or an output.  The 6530 ROM chip provides 10 additional I/O lines that may also be specified as input or output lines under program control. There are eight 1/0 lines from one port on the 6530 and two 1/0 lines from the second port. These I/0 lines may be used in conjunction with DEMON for interfacing a high speed paper tape reader to the CPU card. In the paper tape reader application, the eight 1/0 lines from one port are used as inputs and two I/0 lines from the second port are used to accomplish the handshake control between the reader and the CPU card.
The PIA is hardwired addressed as location 4000 to 4003 in the memory address space. Memory addresses from 4000 to 4003 are allocated for PIA devices so that the JOLT system may be easily expanded to accommodate up to eight PIA chips. The 6530 uses addresses from 6200 to 6E07 for eight I/0 functions. The unused memory addresses occur because address bits A10 and A11 are ignored to simplify address decoding. The 6530 I/0 lines may be referred to as Monitor I/0 because these lines are commonly used for a high speed paper tape interface.
See the TIM page for more information on timers and I/O.

Standard Interface Circuits
The JOLT CPU card provides direct interfacing with a 20 mA current loop and RS232C terminal. The 20 mA current loop requires +5 v and -10 v whereas the RS232C interface requires +12 v and -10 v. Both interfaces are wired in parallel on the input and output thereby allowing both interfaces to be used simultaneously.

JOLT SYSTEM MEMORY MAP
The memory map on the following charts explains what functions have been assigned to each segment of the JOLT address space. It is recommended that users respect this space allocation when adding memory and peripherals to their JOLT systems. Space has been reserved for 32 K bytes of user RAM or ROM, seven additional PIA devices, and’up to 512 user I/O device registers. Other areas are reserved for JOLT expansion, new JOLT peripherals and memory options will use these spaces. Users are advised to not use JOLT expansion space unless absolutely necessary. Note that some areas used by the JOLT CPU board and PIA boards have more space indicated than there are registers or locations in the device occupying them. This is because these devices do not decode all address bits, or use some of the address bits for special functions. For example, the 6530 timer determines the time scale and interrupt enable/disable by the address used to access it. Thus, these “partly filled” areas are actually entirely used and are not available for other uses.

(1) Standard on JOLT CPU board.
(2) Available to user-not used by DEMON.
(3) To get enable-interrupt address, add 0008 to disable-interrupt address with corresponding functions.
(4) Reserved for DEMON use, TTY control and reset functions

DEbug MONitor (TIM 6530-004)

Debug Monitor
The JOLT CPU card comes complete with DEMON, MAl’s debug monitor program. The program is located in the 1,024 byte, Read Only Memory (ROM) of the multi-function 6530 chip and is therefore
completely protected against any alteration. DEMON provides a permanently available general purpose monitor program to aid users in developing hardware and software for MAl’s JOLT series of microcomputers.
DEMON’s Features Include:
• Self adapting to any terminal speed from 10-30 cps,
• Display and Alter CPU registers,
• Display and Alter Memory locations,
• Read and Write/Punch hexadecimal formatted data,
• Write/Punch BNPF format data for PROM programmers,
• Unlimited breakpoint capability,
• Separate non-maskable interrupt entry and identification,
• External device interrupts directable to any user location or defaulted to DEMON recognition,
• Capability to begin or resume execution at any location in memory,
• Completely protected, resident in Read Only Memory,
• Capability to bypass DEMON entirely to permit full user program
control over system,
• High speed 8-bit parallel input option, and
• User callable I/O subroutines.
DEMON’s Command Set Includes:
.R Display registers (PC,F,A,X,Y,SP)
.M ADDR Display memory (8 bytes beginning at ADDR)
: DATA Alters previously displayed item
.LH Load hexadecimal tape
.WB ADDR1 ADDR2 Write BNPF tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.WH ADDR1 ADDR2 Write hexidecimal tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.G Go, continue execution from current PC address
.H Toggles high-~peed-reader option (if its on, turns it off; if off, turns on)
See the TIM manual for more information on DEMON, the name MAI uses for the TIM program.

RAP — 1.75K Byte Resident Assembler Program
(This looks like a predecessor of the RAE of the SYM-1). The JOLT Resident Assembler Program (RAP) is designed for use on JOLT systems equipped with at least 4K bytes of RAM memory. RAP has some significant advantages over conventional assemblers:
1. Resident as part of the JOLT system on PROM chips. The assembler never has to be read into volatile memory before use. It, just like the DEMON monitor, is instantly available. In addition, costly time sharing services are not needed for cross assemblies.
2. Operates on one pass of the source code. The source tape is read in only once, thereby increasing assembler speed by a factor of two over conventional assemblers that make two or three passes over the source code.
3. Small in size. The assembler is smaller by a factor of 4 or 5 over comparable assemblers. Its size guarantees the smallest number of PROM chips needed and minimizes printed circuit board space requirements. With the assembler PROM chips installed in your JOLT PROM board (at address E800 hex), the assembler may be activated by reading the source code input on the console input device and transfering to location E800 hex using the DEMON monitor. As source code is being read in, a listing is produced on the console printer and the object code is generated directly into RAM at the addresses specified by the origin directive (.ORG).
After the assembly is complete, the object code may be punched onto paper tape or executed directly using DEMON. The assembler assumes RAM at locations 1FFF hex and lower to be available for symbol table usage. RAP uses an efficient symbol table algorithm and users can normally expect that about 4 to 6 bytes of RAM will be used for each symbol or that a 3000 byte program would use approximately 800 bytes for the entire symbol table (locations 1CEO to 1FFF hex). This space need not be left unused if buffers,’ etc. are allocated to it. The Resident Assembler Program is compatible with the MAS Technology Cross Assembler with the following exceptions:
1. Expressions and * (used for current program counter) are not allowed.
2. Thee .OPT and .PAGE pseudo operations are not implemented.
3. Octal and binary numbers are not implemented.
4. .ORG is used instead of *= to origin program.
5. .RES is used for reserving storage.

The Jolt microcomputer was released in 1975 by Microcomputer Associates. The company was founded by Ray Holt and Manny Lemas. The company was later acquired by Synertek, a second source manufacturer of the 6502, and renamed Synertek Systems. Synertek went on to produce the popular SYM-1 microcomputer. Ray Holt’s business partner was Hispanic and he used to call Ray “Jolt” which is the reverse-anglicized spelling of the word HOLT if written in Spanish. i.e “Jolt” in Spanish is pronounced “holt”. There were about 5000 JOLT units produced, first designed in 1974, far pre-dating the Apple I.

Hear it from Ray Holt from an interview on YouTube:

Audio recording of VCF sessions:
Manny Lemas https://archive.org/details/VCF2-MannyLemas-SynertekAndTheSYM1SingleBoardComputer
Ray Holt https://archive.org/details/VCF2-RayHolt-JOLTAndTheSynertekSYM1SingleBoardComputers

A newsletter was published, this one in PDF format is from 1977 and contains some Tiny Basic programs for JOLT and Super Jolt.

The Jolt is somewhat famous for the part it played in the development of the prototype Atari 2600 VCS, which was assembled using the Jolt computer board, (source atarimuseum)

This photo is one of the original wirewrapped prototypes for “The Worlds Most Popular Video Game” aka… The Atari Video Computer System (VCS) Model #2600.    The interesting and eye catching part of the unit besides the extremely intricate hand wired area (TIA perhaps?) are the controllers, you look and say “Hey those don’t look like the standard CX-40 joysticks I’ve come to know and love all these many years!”   The controllers are actually from the Atari/KeeGames TANK coin-op arcade game.   The actual Atari VCS joysticks would later come from a home console game of TANK which was sold under the Sears exclusive brand label.   The Atari Tank joysticks for a one player would act as left and right treads on the home tank game and then they popped out of the rectangular home console and could be used for two player action and would allow each user to use one joystick just like Atari VCS Combat (CX-2601).

  The above prototype designed by Ron Milner and Steve Mayer in Grass Valley, Ca. at Cyan Engineering (a company owned by Atari, Inc.)is actually a combination of many parts.   The wirewrap board was the original version of the STELLA chip.  The boards to the right are a memory board and a “Jolt” 6502  board ) and on the far left is a 5V power supply.  The above Stella prototype had actually been thrown out in the garbage at Atari at one point. Owen Rubin, one of Atari’s first programmers had found it in the trash and recovered this piece of history and placed it into the safe hands of Atari’s Employee #3, who built the first Atari Pong, Allan Alcorn.

History of Jolt Serial One, Bill Ragsdale (source old-computers

Jolt was designed and developed by Raymond M. Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. In the late 1990’s Holt was finally given government permission to discuss his role in the development of the F-14 Tomcat. Holt claims he designed and developed the worlds first microprocessor one year before Intel.
Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT.
This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!

I bought the first Jolt microcomputer out the door. I saw its advertisement (in Byte?) and was just starting a project in security access control. We were doing a crash project to demonstrate reading magnetic striped ID badges for Honeywell. We needed to accept a real-time bit sequence, extract numeric data and do a simple name vs. number lookup. An ideal job for a small processor. But remember, this was 1976. Development systems cost $5,000+ and none were offered for the 6502. (Later, MOS Technology offered one and Rockwell had a very good one.)
I ordered a Jolt system on a Wednesday or Thursday and was told Microcomputer Associates Inc. (Manny Lemas and Ray Holt) was awaiting the first silicon of their DeMon monitor to come by air from MOS Technology in two days, on Saturday. DeMon was a one chip Debug-Monitor containing 1K of ROM, 512 bytes of RAM, paralled IO, an ASCII serial interface and a monitor program. With the 6502 processor and a simple clock you could have a two-chip microcomputer. DeMon was later renamed Tim, Terminal Input Monitor.
MAI received their first DeMon chips about 9 AM Saturday morning, plugged in one, it ran, and I picked up the first unit at noon at their office. IIRC the Jolt had an inked-in serial number 0 or 1. Over the week-end I built a teletype interface as Jolt had a voltage output while the Teletype had current loop.

Super Jolt

The Super Jolt is a evolution of the JOLT. Same CPU, 1 MHz clock, same TIM IC, same PIA, more RAM (1K), sockets for EPROMS, RAP and Tiny Basic in ROM.

Sold under the name CP110 by Synertek  in 1985, Microcomputer Associates had become the core of Synertek Systems.



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LAB-VOLT 6502

LAB-VOLT 6502 Microprocessor trainer.

A rather unknown SBC aimed at education in the LAB-VOLT family.

Only reliable information available are photos’s as shown below and a not too good scan of the circuit diagram.

The description of the trainer is in a book Microprocessor Concepts and Applications ISBN 0-86657-005-5 Paperback, Publisher: Lab-Volt (1996) ISBN-10: 0866570055 ISBN-13: 978-0866570053, which is not available online and very expenive second-hand.


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KIM-1 Clone

A KIM-1 clone build by Bob Applegate of Corsham technologies.

Somewhat inspired by the microKIM by Vince Briel, who was inpired by Ruud Baltissen! The idea is replace the 6530’s with 6532 and by carefull memory decoding have the I/O, timer and RAM of the 6532s appear at the same locations as the 6530-002 and -003. ROM is added with an EPROM.

Not an exact copy, the ROM has been changed/enhanced with a KIM Monitor by Bob, though the original KIM-1 ROM should work also.

Available assembled and tested or as a kit. I have bought the PCB and plan to build it!