The Super Jolt is a evolution of the JOLT. Same CPU, 1 MHz clock, same TIM IC, same PIA, more RAM (1K), sockets for PROMS, RAP and Tiny Basic in ROM.
Photos by Ray Holt of Microcomputer Associates.
Jolt was designed and developed by Ray Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT. This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A.I. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, so they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!
The Jolt microcomputer was released in 1975 by Microcomputer Associates. The company was founded by Ray Holt and Manny Lemas. The company was later acquired by Synertek, a second source manufacturer of the 6502, and renamed Synertek Systems. Synertek went on to produce the popular SYM-1 microcomputer. Ray Holt’s business partner was Hispanic and he used to call Ray “Jolt” which is the reverse-anglicized spelling of the word HOLT if written in Spanish. i.e “Jolt” in Spanish is pronounced “holt”. There were about 5000 JOLT units produced, first designed in 1974, far pre-dating the Apple I.
Hear it from Ray Holt from an interview on YouTube:
A newsletter was published, this one in PDF format is from 1977 and contains some Tiny Basic programs for JOLT and Super Jolt.
Synertek acquired Microcomputer Associates, Incorporated, consisting of engineers Manny Lemas and Ray Holt, after which it was renamed Synertek Systems, Inc. and established as a subsidiary. In 1978, Synertek Systems released a 6502-based single board computer/evaluation kit called the SYM-1, a derivative of MOS Technology/Commodore Semiconductor Group’s KIM-1. The Super Jolt was still sold by Synertek in 1985 (see the Super Jolt page).
Images supplied by Ray Holt.
Jolt was the first 6502 singleboard computer. On December 1975, the coveted inside-front-cover of Byte magazine contained a two-page advertisement for “the world’s lowest cost computer system”. This was perhaps the first non-MOS Technology 6502 based computer system to come to market, The computer was named Jolt, and it was marketed by Microcomputer Associates Inc. (MAI) as both a kit for $249, or fully assembled and tested for $348 (Dec. 1975 Byte). Microcomputer Associates also sold add-ons for the basic system. They included 4 kilobytes for $265, an I/O card for $96, and a power supply for $145. Either at that time or shortly later MAI expanded the line to a RAM card and an EPROM card using 2702 PROMS. The boards were about 4″x6″ arranged in a vertical stack jointed by a ribbon cable. Only 5 volt power was needed. Software available in PROM was RAP (Resident Assembler Program) and Tiny Basic from Tom Pittman.
As can be seen in the photos of the Jolt front, back and experimenters card below, the system is quite simple. In fact it is a TIM system (the 6530-004 is the middle IC), with a 6502 at the right and a 6820 PIA on the right. Some glue logic on the right and the top, RAM on the bottom (4x 2111 for 512 byte memory) and RS232 TTY interface at the right (1488, 1489 line drivers). The system clock was a RC at 750 KHz, in the photo the clock is a 1 MHz crystal added later.
The TIM IC, 6530-004,contains the ROM (1K), timers, 128 byte RAM, 16 I/O) and 64 bytes RAM. The PIA 6820 adds another 16 bit I/O.
JOLT SPECIFICATIONS SUMMARY
(See the Microcomputer Associates Catalog in PDF format here)
• MOS Technology 6502 CPU
• MOS Technology 6530 with DEbug MONitor (a 653-004 TIM)
• 750 KHz clock operation-RC controlled or crystal controlled with user supplied crystal.
• 512 bytes RAM
• 64 bytes RAM-located at interrupt vector locations
• Expandable address & data lines
• Direct drive to 8 K bytes of memory
• 26 Programmable I/O lines
• Two hardware interrupts
• Serial interface for 20 ma current loop and EIA RS232C
• 4.25″ x 7″ printed circuit card
• Compatible with other JOLT cards
JOLT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The JOLT system consists of a set of modular microcomputer boards which can be used singly or tied together to produce any desired microcomputer system configuration. The minimum system is one CPU board. which alone constitutes a viable computer system complete with central processor. 1/0. interrupts. timer. read/write memory. and a complete software debug monitor in read-only memory. Additional boards in the JOLT system include a 4 K byte RAM , 1/0. Power Supply and blank Universal Interface board. A large JOLT system could have up to 32 K bytes of RAM memory. up to 128 lines of bidirectional 110 and 16 interrupts. JOLT boards come in kit form or assembled. and are ready to use in any form. from home hobby kits to industrial applications. All JOLT components are new. fully tested and fully warranted by MAI.
The internal oscillator operates in a “free run” mode with a capacitor and variable resistor supplied on the CPU printed circuit board. The frequency of oscillation may be adjusted with the variable resistor. If a very stable clock is required by the system a crystal may be added to the CPU board.
The RESET input to the CPU is pulled to logic ground by an RC circuit (t=33 milliseconds) on the printed circuit board. The CPU normally fetches a new program count vector from hex locations FFFC and FFFD upon activation of the RESET line, but these locations are in the interrupt vector RAM and therefore volatile. Hardware on the CPU board causes the CPU to begin executing the monitor program by forcing the effective sixteenth bit of the address bus to a logic ZERO during reset. As a result, the RESET function on the JOLT CPU card causes the debug monitor (DEMON) to begin executing.
There are two interrupt inputs to the CPU. One interrupt is maskable under program control (IRQ) and the other (NMI) is not.
A READY control line provides for asynchronous operation with slow memory or I/O devices.
The address bus (A0-A15). the data bus (00-07). the two phase clock (PHI). the reset line (RESET). the interrupt lines (IRQ and NMI). and the ready line (RDY) are all available at the edge connector of the CPU board. The loading restrictions should be considered when using the signal lines driven by the CPU for external system expansion.
There are 512 bytes of program RAM provided on the CPU card. The program RAM is hardwired addressed as the first 512 bytes of the CPU’s 64 K of memory address space. It may become necessary to remove these RAM’s from their sockets if a 4 K memory card is also hardwired in this address space. The program RAM on the CPU card uses NMOS RAM chips type 2111, 512×4 bytes.
Monitor ROM and Interrupt Vector RAM
The monitor ROM is located in the last 1 K bytes of the lower half of memory space (first 32 K bytes). The interrupt vector RAM is located in the last 64 bytes of the 64 K memory address space. The monitor ROM and the interrupt vector RAM as well as additional I/0 are implemented with a single 6530 chip, the 6530-004 TIM
Programmable User I/0
The programmable I/0 lines available from the CPU card are provided by a Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) and a 6530 ROM chip. The PIA has two 8-bit 1/0 ports with two interrupt-causing control lines each. Two jumpers are provided on the card which connects one or both PIA interrupt outputs to the CPU IRQ interrupt line. Refer to the CPU assembly drawing for proper identification of the jumpers. A Data Direction Register for each port determines whether each 1/0 line is an input or an output. The 6530 ROM chip provides 10 additional I/O lines that may also be specified as input or output lines under program control. There are eight 1/0 lines from one port on the 6530 and two 1/0 lines from the second port. These I/0 lines may be used in conjunction with DEMON for interfacing a high speed paper tape reader to the CPU card. In the paper tape reader application, the eight 1/0 lines from one port are used as inputs and two I/0 lines from the second port are used to accomplish the handshake control between the reader and the CPU card.
The PIA is hardwired addressed as location 4000 to 4003 in the memory address space. Memory addresses from 4000 to 4003 are allocated for PIA devices so that the JOLT system may be easily expanded to accommodate up to eight PIA chips. The 6530 uses addresses from 6200 to 6E07 for eight I/0 functions. The unused memory addresses occur because address bits A10 and A11 are ignored to simplify address decoding. The 6530 I/0 lines may be referred to as Monitor I/0 because these lines are commonly used for a high speed paper tape interface.
See the TIM page for more information on timers and I/O.
Standard Interface Circuits
The JOLT CPU card provides direct interfacing with a 20 mA current loop and RS232C terminal. The 20 mA current loop requires +5 v and -10 v whereas the RS232C interface requires +12 v and -10 v. Both interfaces are wired in parallel on the input and output thereby allowing both interfaces to be used simultaneously.
JOLT SYSTEM MEMORY MAP
The memory map on the following charts explains what functions have been assigned to each segment of the JOLT address space. It is recommended that users respect this space allocation when adding memory and peripherals to their JOLT systems. Space has been reserved for 32 K bytes of user RAM or ROM, seven additional PIA devices, and’up to 512 user I/O device registers. Other areas are reserved for JOLT expansion, new JOLT peripherals and memory options will use these spaces. Users are advised to not use JOLT expansion space unless absolutely necessary. Note that some areas used by the JOLT CPU board and PIA boards have more space indicated than there are registers or locations in the device occupying them. This is because these devices do not decode all address bits, or use some of the address bits for special functions. For example, the 6530 timer determines the time scale and interrupt enable/disable by the address used to access it. Thus, these “partly filled” areas are actually entirely used and are not available for other uses.
(1) Standard on JOLT CPU board.
(2) Available to user-not used by DEMON.
(3) To get enable-interrupt address, add 0008 to disable-interrupt address with corresponding functions.
(4) Reserved for DEMON use, TTY control and reset functions
DEbug MONitor (TIM 6530-004)
The JOLT CPU card comes complete with DEMON, MAl’s debug monitor program. The program is located in the 1,024 byte, Read Only Memory (ROM) of the multi-function 6530 chip and is therefore
completely protected against any alteration. DEMON provides a permanently available general purpose monitor program to aid users in developing hardware and software for MAl’s JOLT series of microcomputers.
DEMON’s Features Include:
• Self adapting to any terminal speed from 10-30 cps,
• Display and Alter CPU registers,
• Display and Alter Memory locations,
• Read and Write/Punch hexadecimal formatted data,
• Write/Punch BNPF format data for PROM programmers,
• Unlimited breakpoint capability,
• Separate non-maskable interrupt entry and identification,
• External device interrupts directable to any user location or defaulted to DEMON recognition,
• Capability to begin or resume execution at any location in memory,
• Completely protected, resident in Read Only Memory,
• Capability to bypass DEMON entirely to permit full user program
control over system,
• High speed 8-bit parallel input option, and
• User callable I/O subroutines.
DEMON’s Command Set Includes:
.R Display registers (PC,F,A,X,Y,SP)
.M ADDR Display memory (8 bytes beginning at ADDR)
: DATA Alters previously displayed item
.LH Load hexadecimal tape
.WB ADDR1 ADDR2 Write BNPF tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.WH ADDR1 ADDR2 Write hexidecimal tape (from ADDR1 to ADDR2)
.G Go, continue execution from current PC address
.H Toggles high-speed-reader option (if it is on, turns it off; if off, turns on)
See the TIM manual for more information on DEMON, the name MAI uses for the TIM program.
RAP — 1.75K Byte Resident Assembler Program
(This looks like a predecessor of the RAE of the SYM-1). The JOLT Resident Assembler Program (RAP) is designed for use on JOLT systems equipped with at least 4K bytes of RAM memory. RAP has some significant advantages over conventional assemblers:
1. Resident as part of the JOLT system on PROM chips. The assembler never has to be read into volatile memory before use. It, just like the DEMON monitor, is instantly available. In addition, costly time sharing services are not needed for cross assemblies.
2. Operates on one pass of the source code. The source tape is read in only once, thereby increasing assembler speed by a factor of two over conventional assemblers that make two or three passes over the source code.
3. Small in size. The assembler is smaller by a factor of 4 or 5 over comparable assemblers. Its size guarantees the smallest number of PROM chips needed and minimizes printed circuit board space requirements. With the assembler PROM chips installed in your JOLT PROM board (at address E800 hex), the assembler may be activated by reading the source code input on the console input device and transfering to location E800 hex using the DEMON monitor. As source code is being read in, a listing is produced on the console printer and the object code is generated directly into RAM at the addresses specified by the origin directive (.ORG).
After the assembly is complete, the object code may be punched onto paper tape or executed directly using DEMON. The assembler assumes RAM at locations 1FFF hex and lower to be available for symbol table usage. RAP uses an efficient symbol table algorithm and users can normally expect that about 4 to 6 bytes of RAM will be used for each symbol or that a 3000 byte program would use approximately 800 bytes for the entire symbol table (locations 1CEO to 1FFF hex). This space need not be left unused if buffers,’ etc. are allocated to it. The Resident Assembler Program is compatible with the MAS Technology Cross Assembler with the following exceptions:
1. Expressions and * (used for current program counter) are not allowed.
2. Thee .OPT and .PAGE pseudo operations are not implemented.
3. Octal and binary numbers are not implemented.
4. .ORG is used instead of *= to origin program.
5. .RES is used for reserving storage.
The Jolt is somewhat famous for the part it played in the development of the prototype Atari 2600 VCS, which was assembled using the Jolt computer board, (source atarimuseum)
This photo is one of the original wirewrapped prototypes for “The Worlds Most Popular Video Game” aka… The Atari Video Computer System (VCS) Model #2600. The interesting and eye catching part of the unit besides the extremely intricate hand wired area (TIA perhaps?) are the controllers, you look and say “Hey those don’t look like the standard CX-40 joysticks I’ve come to know and love all these many years!” The controllers are actually from the Atari/KeeGames TANK coin-op arcade game. The actual Atari VCS joysticks would later come from a home console game of TANK which was sold under the Sears exclusive brand label. The Atari Tank joysticks for a one player would act as left and right treads on the home tank game and then they popped out of the rectangular home console and could be used for two player action and would allow each user to use one joystick just like Atari VCS Combat (CX-2601).
The above prototype designed by Ron Milner and Steve Mayer in Grass Valley, Ca. at Cyan Engineering (a company owned by Atari, Inc.)is actually a combination of many parts. The wirewrap board was the original version of the STELLA chip. The boards to the right are a memory board and a “Jolt” 6502 board ) and on the far left is a 5V power supply. The above Stella prototype had actually been thrown out in the garbage at Atari at one point. Owen Rubin, one of Atari’s first programmers had found it in the trash and recovered this piece of history and placed it into the safe hands of Atari’s Employee #3, who built the first Atari Pong, Allan Alcorn.
History of Jolt Serial One, Bill Ragsdale (source old-computers )
Jolt was designed and developed by Raymond M. Holt, Founder and Executive Vice-President of Microcomputer Associates. Holt went on to design the SYM-1 single-board computer, a KIM-1 clone. In the late 1990’s Holt was finally given government permission to discuss his role in the development of the F-14 Tomcat. Holt claims he designed and developed the worlds first microprocessor one year before Intel.
Manny Lemas was the co-founder of Microcomputer Associates, Inc. Ray Holt was the hardware side and he was the software side of the business. He wrote the DEMON (Debugger/Monitor) software for the JOLT.
This software was actually developed for MOS Technology for use in the TIM chip and the KIM-1 single board computer. M.A. was granted rights to its own version of the software for use in the JOLT, they used the TIM 6530-004 IC!
I bought the first Jolt microcomputer out the door. I saw its advertisement (in Byte?) and was just starting a project in security access control. We were doing a crash project to demonstrate reading magnetic striped ID badges for Honeywell. We needed to accept a real-time bit sequence, extract numeric data and do a simple name vs. number lookup. An ideal job for a small processor. But remember, this was 1976. Development systems cost $5,000+ and none were offered for the 6502. (Later, MOS Technology offered one and Rockwell had a very good one.)
I ordered a Jolt system on a Wednesday or Thursday and was told Microcomputer Associates Inc. (Manny Lemas and Ray Holt) was awaiting the first silicon of their DeMon monitor to come by air from MOS Technology in two days, on Saturday. DeMon was a one chip Debug-Monitor containing 1K of ROM, 512 bytes of RAM, paralled IO, an ASCII serial interface and a monitor program. With the 6502 processor and a simple clock you could have a two-chip microcomputer. DeMon was later renamed Tim, Terminal Input Monitor.
MAI received their first DeMon chips about 9 AM Saturday morning, plugged in one, it ran, and I picked up the first unit at noon at their office. IIRC the Jolt had an inked-in serial number 0 or 1. Over the week-end I built a teletype interface as Jolt had a voltage output while the Teletype had current loop.
Photos by Ray Holt of Microcomputer Associates.
Peter Renaud has designed a TIM system with a 6532, a 6502, some RAM, ROM and glue logic that runs the TIM-1 sofware.
The TIM-1 IC is a 6530, and since the 6532 is nearly identical with regards to I/O and timer facilities it is possible to construct a TIM system with the same software.
And that is what Peter Renaud has done. He took a 6532, a 6502, an EPROM (as replacement for the mask ROM in the 6530-004) and some RAM, some glue logic to build a system. See the cicuit diagram and source below (reproduced here with his permission).
TIM-2 assembler source
Adapted for other I/O RAM and ROM addresses, functionally identical to the TIM-1 source.
Changes are (besides some assembler related)
– I/O base TIM-1 = $6E00 TIM-2 = $6800
– ROM start TIM-1 = $7000 TIM-2 $F000
– 64 Byte monitor reserve area TIM-1 $FFC0 TIM-2 = $6000
– TIM-2 no INT Vectors area
– RS232 bit inverted
– 7 bit ASCII forced
After finishing the large update a month ago of KIM-1/SYM-1/AIM 65 I turned my attention to the Elektuur/Elektor archive, mainly the 6502 period of 1978 to 1985 where the SBC Junior Computer and EC65/Octopus systems were introduced.
New and enhanced in higher quality information about these systems:
– published in multiple languages and more content of articles and books scanned, not only dutch bnut also English, German, French, some Spanish and Italian.
– better hardware descriptions and photos of PCBs etc
– more complete software library, sources of systems ROMS etc.
– gallery of Juniors, EC65 and other cards and cases
6502, Junior and EC65(K)/Octopus publications by Elektuur and Elektor 1978 -1985 and the magaizines KIM KENNER and COMPUSER
|Books and Paperware Junior Computer, Dutch, English, German, French, Italian|
|Articles from the magazine Elektuur and Elektor 1978 -1985
|The dutch KIM/6502 Club published many articles on the 6502 and the Junior: KIM 6502 Kenner archief|
4 “De Junior” door Anton Muller
4 Hex teller en flip flop voor de Junior, J. Hummeling
6 Ervaringen met de Junior computer, W.L. van Pelt
4 JUNIOR, H.J.C. Otten
8 One armed Bandit voor de Junior, F.J. Butterfield
12 Ervaringen met de Junior, J. van Sprang en W.L. van Pelt
14 Junior leesroutine voor Kansas City cassette interface, Sebo Woldringh
16 Junior schrijfroutine voor Kansas City cassette interface, Sebo
13 Ervaringen met de JUNIOR J. van Sprang en W.L. van Pelt
15 Letters en cijfers op JUNIOR display J. Hummeling
24 Ervaringen met de Junior, W. Van Pelt en J. van Sprang
26 Automatische register uitlezing voor de Junior
39 Browse voor de Junior
12 Ervaringen met de Junior, Willem van Pelt en John van Sprang
Schrijf- en lees routine voor de Junior, Dick Blok
15 Rapportcijfer, Rein Duyts
22 Display op oscilloscope, C. Totte
28 Aanpassingen aan de Macro Assembler van C.W. Moser, van Nieuwenhove Koen
34 Patches op Basic, Hans Otten
35 Lichtshow voor de Junior en de KIM, K. Kikke
38 4 kolom printer, A.S. Hankel
40 Printer routine voor H14, Paul de Beer en Hans Otten
43 Break voor Junior en KIM, Frans Mepschen
79 SYM Microsoft Basic aangepast voor de Junior, door Jaron Orenztajn
81 Aanvullingen voor de Elektuur EPROM programmer, door John van Sprang
85 Aanpassingen Junior print voor 2716, door J. Vollering
87 Patches Micro Ade deel 11 voor de Junior, door A. Hankel
91 Voedingsschema voor +5V, +12V en -12V. door Frans Smeehuizen
92 Memory test aangepast voor de Junior, door Bert van Tiel
36 Junior’s aan de PET, door Ruud Uphoff
12 Patches op KIM-1 Basic t.b.v. de Junior, door Van Nieuwenhove Koen
11 Patches op KIM-1 Basic t.b.v Junior (deel 2), door Van Nieuwenhove Koen
25 R.T.T.Y. met Junior, Telexberichten via korte golf op uw scherm, door A.S. Hankel
32 Easy Editing Supporter v. Junior, door R.C. Vissers
40 Simpele geheugenuitbreiding, door H. Burgers
43 Single Step Debug Programma, door M. A. v.d. Laan
46 Tiny Basic voor Junior + cassette routine, door Filip van Kenhove
14 Patches op KIM-1 Basic t.b.v Junior (deel 3), door Van Nieuwenhove Koen
4 Cassette bibliotheek, Junior cassette 2
6 Patches op KIM-1 Basic t.b.v Junior (deel 4, slot), en bugs in deel 1,2 en 3, door Van Nieuwenhove Koen
24 Junior en dubbel adressering VIA 6522, door Koen van Nieuwenhove
35 AIM-65 Basic voor de Junior, door E.J.M. Visschedijk
4 ReNr en Append voor de SYM-Basic voor Junior
6 Maak van Junior een Senior: Disk drive Systeem van Proton op Junior, door P. Franssen
16 Printen op OKI Microline 80 Printer, een nieuwe printer routine voor Junior
3 Proton’s JUNIOR DOS
3 Spiraal (KIM) nu voor Junior
19 Koppeling van Junior aan 8″ Floppy, met FD1771 controler 8″ single en 5″ double density, door Koen van Nieuwenhove
41 UART schakeling voor Junior, door A.A. Zwart
6 Grafisch display voor Junior, door H. Christen
21 Read Junior’s SYM-Basic cassettes with Microsoft KB9 Basic
22 Toevoegen niruwe commando’s aan de SYM-1 Basic voor KIM-1 en Junior, Frans Smeehuyzen
25 Vraag en aanbod
26 Automatisch regels verwijderen, Frans Smeehuyzen
28 Clear screen voor JUNIOR’s SYM-1 Basic, Will Cuypers
29 Tekstverwerker, naar een idee van M.A. van der Laan
31 Hexadecimaal omzetter, Dick Blok
33 Universele geheugenkaart voor Junior
33 KB9-Basic op Acorn SYSTEM-1
39 Junior’s Hex monitor on Acorn-System, Alfons van de Meutter
8 Usurpator, schaakprogramma voor Junior, Fridus Jonkman
9 PACHA, patch on PM monitor, Fernando Lopez
11 Bouw eens een Miljonair: 2 miljoen bytes voor uw Junior, Jam H. Vernimmen
17 Program cassette 1: Junior/Apple formaat cassette routines deel 1, A Brouwer
34 LED’s op Junior, Hans Buurman
37 Uitbreidingen op SYM-1 Basic voor KIM en Junior: automatische regelnummering, Frans Smeehuyzen
39 Missing data in Junior Book 4
47 Load your Junior Sym-Basic Tapes into KB-9
21 KIM-1 en Junior KB-9 Basic Tokenized Microsoft Basic Keywords and addresses, Willem L. van Pelt
28 Aanpassen regelbreeddte via het toetsenbord, Frans SMeehuyzen
47 Extended AIM Basic Junior patch on Basic program compressor
4 Tips & Trics, Wout van Dinther en Gerard van Roekel
29 Junior Command Characters, Coen Kleipool
34 Basicode-2 voor de Junior met SYM-Basic, Fridus Jonkman
36 Hexdump voor de Senior Monitor voo Junior met PROTON’s monitor, Rob Banen
44 UART schakeling voor Junior, A.A. Zwart
44 Textfiles with Junior, Camiel de Ly
3 Epson FX80 printer routine for Junior with OS65D
8 Junior disassembler voor hexdisplay, Fridus Jonkman
17 Low cost Elekterminal Expansion, R. Baarslag
24 Spiraal, grafisch op Junior met VDU kaart, Japp van Toledo
33 Tracer en single step, voortzetting uitbreidingen SYM Basic op Junior, Frans Smeehuyzen
36 Save en load routines PROTON DOS SYM-1 Basic op Junior, Frans Smeehuyzen
33 HEX ascii dump, FORTH Gert Klein
39 Wallbreaker for Junior with OHIO-DOS, Willem Kuitens
42 Maanlander, Maarten van Hintum
44 Junior 8K of Junior 64K, Hans Mooi
5 Junior met VDU kaart Greedy spelprogramma deel 1, Phons Bloemen
48 Junior met D.O.S, Koen van Nieuwenhove Speed
5 Junior met VDU kaart Het grafisch display, J.J.A. en J.A.J. Janssen
21 FORTH op Junior deel 1, Gert van Opbroek
24 OHIO DOS V3.3 Aanpassen I/O routines, Wout van Dinther
24 How to change the Memory Map of your FORTH system on Junior
17 Junior met DOSV2.0A Bug in Disc patches on ASSM/Ted, Hans buurman
45 FORTH op Junior computer, Gert van Opbroek
11 Dubbele dobbelsteen Junior met PM Maarten Lamey
22 ID en KB-9 Microsoft Programs, Camiel de Ly
23 VIA ACIA print, M.A. van der Laan
32 Patches op PM Junior
40 Sorting subroutine Junior Fernando Lopez
10 DOS65 JUNIOR, another DOS for the Junior, Coen Kleipool
13 Time of day, de 6526 nader bekeken, Ruud H. Uphoff
18 Vraag en aanbod
19 Junior met OS65D V3.3 Uitbreidingen, Gert Klein
33 Junior Tape I/O, A.W. den Hertog
35 Ervaringen met de PC-2 computer van Proton Electronics
35 HCC Computerdagen 16/17 nov 1985 reductiebon
36 Tokenized Microsoft Basic Keywords and addresses CBM40XX, CBM 80XX, Nico de Vries
46 Automatische dataregel teller
47 FORTH op Junior deel 3, Gert van Opbroek
39 Junior in Apple, Frans Verberkt
42 C64JUN, Junior leest C64 tapes, R.A.F. Bens
6 Basic teksteditor OHIO DOS Junior, Maarten van Hitum
15 Screen editor V3.0 SCRED 3.0 Junior met VDU kaart voor Basic of Comal, B. de Bruine
9 Real-time clock voor de Junior, Clock IC MC146818, M.J. Stiphorst
15 Octopus 65, fout in publicatie FCU kaart Elektuur Special
24 Octopus 65 Let it be, Will Cuypers
26 GRAF V2.4 Routines grafische kaart, J.J. A. JAnssen
38 Basic programma Competitiestanden Handbal Elektuur Junior deel 1, Gerard Keet
16 65(C)02 Vervanging 6502 in Junior, Jan Vernimmen
17 Elektor’s octopus diskettes available
18 Basic competitie standen deel 2, Gerard Keet
23 Een wait ingang voor de Junior, Roger Langeveld
29 Octopus Diskette copier version 2.2, Wolfgang Tietsch
44 Bankswitching for the Junior, Fernando Lopez
2 Alternatieve Break routine tbv CPU kaart, Frans Smeehuyzem
4 Elektor’s OCTOPUS/EC65 computer: A data buffer as afterthought, R.T. Overakker
6 Problem with EC65 poweron reset, Siegfried Losensky
7 Elektor’s Octopus/EC65 Modified diskette copier version 2.2 part 2
18 Junior interface card en gewijzigde VDU card, Pieter de Visser
21 Junior POSVAL Chessmonitor for Elektor with hexdisplay, Frans Raaijmakers
21 EC65 Patch realtime clock
29 Printer initialisation for EC65, Leif Rasmussen
29 EC65 SAMSON tips, Leif Rasmussen
31 Basic competitiestanden part 3, printroutine voor teletype 110 baud
38 Junior with Proton’s Senior monitor modified format lister, Rob Banen
45 6845 geprogrammeerd
48 Delete character routines tbv de Elektor VDU card
3 Elektors EC65 Starcatcher Basic game
42 Junior with VDU OHIO DOS NUMBERS routines to handle input of numbers from the keyboard
12 Realtime clock 146818 IC routines, Frenando Lopez
21 Elektor VDU card modification, J.C. Rix
22 New Centronic routine for Junior/Octopus 65, Coen Boltjes
25 Junior POSVAL Chessmonitor for Elektor with hexdisplay, Frans Raaijmakers
43 Basic competitie standen deel 4, Gerard Keet
46 Use of cursor control keys ED, Rene Hettfleisch
46 Octopus/EC65 disks
5 Block graphics on EC65: screendump, Leif Rasmussen
6 An interrupt decoder for the 6809, Andrew Gregory
8 8K RAM voor de Atom, Karel Odon
8 Patch on Dr Tietsch’s copier program, Marc Lacheart
9 A macro loader and Saver for ED DOS65, Bram de Bruine
11 Bitpatroon voorde C64, Gerard van Roekel
11 TIP: 0 in data regels plaatsen, Gerard van Roekel
12 Basicprogrammas’ combineren 2 en 3 letterwoorden, Gert Kwetters, Bart van Pelt
13 Junior bekent kleur, Phons Bloemen
17 Look at real contents Atari, Henk Speksnijder
17 Modification VDU card Octopus65, Albert v.d. Beukel18 Junior POSVAL schaakmonitor part3 end, Frans Raaijmakers
18 Junior Changing the 6502 by a 65C02. Jan Vernimmen
19 Troubles with Micro Ade and Elektor’s Octopus, Marc Lacheart
19 Solution of Micro Ade problem of contineous erros, Ronald Hermans
20 Junior malfunction Display, Ronald Hermens
21 Directory Disk1 ‘System Loys diskette’, Fernando Lopez
22 Bell routine for Octopus/EC65 with Basicode interface card, Coen Boltjes
22 Junior POSVAL wijizigingen in gepubliceerde listing, Frans Raaijmakers
23 Error messages Junior, adapted for Junior, Ronald Hermens
25 PL3/4 straps poblem CPU card, Frans Smeehuijzen
30 Patch in the Octopus/EC65 standard monitor, Marc Lacheart
30 Patches on Disk 5A (Original OSI V3.3) Marc Lacheart
31 Problemen met de Octopus65 met RS232 printer, J.A. van Eken
4 Hardware adjustment Junior/Octopus with VDU card for use as a videotext terminel Prestel standard, Coen Boltjes
6 How to adjust the character generator for Videotex, Coen Boltjes
8 Junior Break key with serial keyboard, Gerard van Woerkom
12 Directory Disk 5a Ohio DOS
12 Junior dubbel adressering, Frans Bens
18 Tips and tricks for the EC65K/Junior, Coen Boltjes
19 MON65 op Junior, Erik v.d. Broek
20 The Junior Computer revisited, Fernando Lopes
28 Bell for EC65, Rasmussen and Lindstroem
32 Extension of OS-65D V3.3 with DEL command
38 Screen flickering, Andrew Gregory
38 Slave: bootstrap loader Junior, Ronald Hermens
39 TELEX programma MCB 1984, Marcel Breukink
44 Columns print for printing in two columns, Octopus, Leif Rasmussen
45 Hardcopy routine for Octopus, Coen Boltjes
5 Videotex program for the Junior Octopus, Coen Boltjes
26 Ascii dump with OS65D extended monitor, Gerrit van Woerkom
28 Working with Micro Ade and bankswitching on the Junior Computer, Fernando Lopes
7 EC65/Octopus Screendump for Kolorator, Leif rasmussen
11 Plotpoints Atari 520ST, Jan Vernimmen
16 Expansion for Ohio DOS Extensions, Coen Boltjes
25 EC65/Octopus How to get more memory space, Peter Linstrom
29 DOS65 ACIA 65C51 and modems. Bram de Bruine
31 Centronics input for DOS65 or Junior computer, Ernst Elderenbosch
32 How to modify the Elektor 64K memory card for use with DOS65, Andrew Gregory
33 Hoe wordt de video controller 6845 geprogrammeerd
39 Forth on the Junior, Frans Bakx
43 Maanlander Junior, Fridus Jonkman
46 Printer routine for Junior, Alfons v.d. Meutter
4 Fast alternative for the slow Junior cassette interface and software, Hans Christen
8 Solved problems Octopus vdu card monitor EPROM
19 Relocator for DOS Junior and Octopus 65, Coen Boltjes
21 RAM Test program for the Octopus 65, Marc Lacheart
36 Paperware service EPROM programmer for Junior, Andrew Gregory
9 EC65/Octopus cassette motor control and Bell hardware, Marc Lacheart
17 EC65/Octopus Wordprocessor V3.0 available, Leif Rasmussen
17 EC65/OctopusPatch on Dr. Tietsch Copier program, P. Lindstrom, Leif Rasmussen
17 Printer problems with the Octopus, Maarten den Hertog
21 Loys extra, how to bind the systemdisk utilities, Leif Rasmussen
28 Junior tape routines on DOS65, Ernst Elderenbosch
26 Octofate: Fate for the Octopus, Coen Boltjes
26 Octopus inputverwerking, A.P. Oerlemans
25 EC65 EPROM disk loader
27 EC65 EPROM disk directory
32 EC65 NUMINT basic
34 EC65 Language study help
37 Junior MAZE
30 EC65 Modified version of Elektor’s listing stopper
34 DOS Errors in words EC65
28 EC65K EPROMs programmeren
16 Screen noise on Junior with VDU: synchronize CPU and VDU
17 A description of the DOS65 Disc format
24 Tape backup and restore utility OCTOPUS/EC65, Marc Lachaert
35 OHIO DOS V3.X special for Junior, Dirk Picke
COMPUSER Volume 1 Nr 5 March 1988
1 Fractals in assembler EC65 Leif Rasmussen
COMPUSER Volume 2 Nr 1 January 1989
14 Transfer OCTOPUS into a development system, Peter F. de Pauw
34 Read time and date EC65, Peter lindstrom
38 Junior DOS65 Erik vd Broek