Robert Leedom games

In the KIM User Notes there were several KIM-1 games published by Robert Leedom.

A tiny Colossal Cave Adventure, HEXPAWN and Baseball.

With his help and others these games have been typed in again and are playable on any KIM-1 (Reproduction), PAL-1, Kim Clone, Micro-KIM.

In August 2021 I (Hans Otten) typed in the source of MICRO-Ade from the listing in the manual, the output is binary compatible with the binaries I saved from tape and are tested on the KIM-1.
The result is a source identical (in standard MOS Technology assembler format) to the listing and binary identical to the page image. I also made new high quality scan of the manual and the listing.
Micro Ade program source and binary
Scanned manual
Scanned listing

Read in the KIM KENNER archive the source of the enhancements (text by S.T. Woldringh o.a.)
The KIM club enhanced Micro Ade to version 8. Download here the binary with a 2 page command summary.
MICRO-ADE V8

Pascal-M 2k1 Pascal on the KIM-1

New version of the Pascal-M system, run Pascal programs on the KIM-1.

KIM-1 Simulator


A KIM-1 simulator with the look and feel of the KIM-1 and a debugger to look ‘inside’

Console, with choice of colors of font and background:



KIM-1 built in ROM tape load and save:




Downloads

Version 1.1.4 April 2022

Setup for Windows and executable for Raspberry PI OS and Ubuntu
Source (requires Lazarus IDE 2.x))

KIM-1 Simulator

Hans Otten, 2019- 2022, Version 1.1.4 Latest version at http://retro.hansotten.nl
Changelog at bottom.

Applicable license: MIT license

Contents

Introduction

The KIM-1 simulator is written for my personal use to aid me in developing and testing software for the KIM-1. It is not meant to be a cycle exact complete KIM-1 emulation. Instead it shows as much as possible what is happening inside. So do not expect it to run the typical KIM games on the LED and Keypad.
Just for fun and a tribute, it looks and feels and functions as a real KIM-1. The debugger is what the purpose of this program is. The program is developed on Windows 10 (32 bit executable) and tested and compiled also on Raspberry PI Os (a Debian Linux variant and Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS. Since source is available, it will run anywhre Lazarus IDE is available.

What is simulated

  • 6502 or 65C02 CPU (only documented behaviour)
  • KIM- LEDs and keypad
  • TTY in and out with TTY console
  • 6530-002 and 6530-003 ROM
  • The suppress ‘echo TTYecho’ hardware
  • The TTY/LED input bit
  • KIM-1 Tape load and save ti audio

Limitations

What the KIM_1 Simulator does not do as the real KIM-1:

  • Light the LED segments from the RRIOTs outputs. Instead the SCANDS routine is intercepted and the LEDs show the hex output of location F9 FA FB.The simulation is not cycle exact enough to perform the KIM-1 way of flashing the LEDs. So some First Book of KIM type programs will not work.
  • The TTY in and out routines are intercepted and rerouted to an ACIA emulation. See the ACIA routines.
  • The upper pages are not mapped to the lower pages as in most KIM-1 configurations. The vectors at FFFA etc are pointing to the KIM-1 ROM vectors, so RESET. NMI and IRQ work.
  • Tape hardware is not emulated.
  • No hardware single-step via NMI, the debugger has much better facilities for that/
  • The CPU runs as fast the host CPU allows, and lets the host operating system do some work like key and display and other applications running and continue the emulation loop until the user stops the 6502 CPU.
  • The CPU emulation may not be perfect, only valid and documented opcodes are implemented, especially ADC and SBC have many, not emulated here, undocumented issues.
  • IRQ handling is not present in this version, see planned enhancements

Enhancements

The KIM-1 Simulator is a KIM-1 with:

  • 6502 or 65C02 CPU (make the choice in the Debugger)
  • RAM to $1400
  • RAM from $2000 to $E000
  • ACIA 6850 at $1600 (equal to Corsham’s I/O card)
  • ROM at $F000 with ACIA routines
  • Pages E and F are not mapped to page 0 and 1 as in most expanded KIM-1’s.
  • LEDs and switches to the user RRIOT Port A and B
  • Switch between TTY and LED/keypad

To do, planned expansions after version 1.0

  • IRQ and 6530 timer support
  • Testing and bugfixing
  • Better documentation …


Installation

Windows

Run KIM1SIMsetup.exe or use the KIM1SIM.EXE + KIM1Simulator.html file in a folder of choice.

Raspberry Pi OS

Execute KIM1SIM from the Raspberry Pi folder

Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS

Execute KIM1SIM from the Ubuntu folder

Note that the font used is Courier New. Install ttf cour.ttf on Linux in .home/.fonts to prevent substitution with artefacts

Other platforms
Install Lazarus (Version 2 and higher) and build from source.

After installation

Start the KIM-1 Simulator and choose Settings to set the default working directory. Otherwise files may appear at locations you do not want!

How to use as KIM-1

Start the emulator main program and push the ‘Run’ icon. Then press the RS key on the keyboard (or type R).
After that the LEDs awake and the keyboard is operational as a KIM-1.

  [0] to [F]  -   Sixteen keys used to define the hex code
                  of address or data

  [AD]  -   selects the address entry mode

  [DA]  -   selects the data entry mode

  [+]   -   increments the address by +1 but does
            not change the entry mode

  [PC]  -   recalls the address stored in the Program
            Counter locations (PCH, PCL) to the display

  [RS]  -   causes a total system reset and a return to
            the control of the operating program

  [GO]  -   causes program execution to begin starting
            at the address shown on the display

  [ST]  -   terminates the execution of  a program and
            causes a return to the control of the
            operating program

Besides pressing the keys on the KIM keybaord on the screen you can also use the PC keyboard:

  0-9 : key 0 - 9
  a-f : key A - F
  A-F : key A - F
  +   : +
  < : AD 
  > : DA
  P,p : PC
  G,g : GO
  S,s : ST
  R,r : RS
  S,s : ST

Console

Press the TTY swicth and you have a console terminal. The KIM-1 teletype commands now work and also programs line KB9 Basic can be used. See the Console chapter below.

KIM-1 Tape load and save

The KIM-1 tape load ($1873) and save ($1800) programs are emulated.

Fill in the tape ID and optionally start and end address as documented in the KIM-1 User manual.

Start the Save at $1800 and the laod at $1873 with the KIM-1 monitor.

You will be prompted for file to load or save.

Default working directory and other settings

Use the menu Settings – Set default work folder to choose a folder for all files created or used by the emulator. The settings are saved between sessions.

Default settings config file : “/home/(user)/.config/KIM1SIM.cfg” or C:\users\(user)\Appdata\local\KIM1SIM.cfg”

Loaded at startup, updated via the Settings menu.

Load and Save

The menu has Load and Save functions, you can load and save to many 8 bit binary formats as MOS papertape, Intel HEX, Motorola S record, binary and simple hex.

TTY console mode

Press the TTY console switch to let the KIM simulator use a glass teletype in a console window. The standard KIM user interface is shown, see the manual how to use.
Note: set the PC keyboard to CAPS Lock, only uppercase is used in the KIM monitor.
Note the menu options to record a session, (Load Text to Console) or play (Save text from Console, followed by Stop saving text ) a text file in the console.
This is in fact the same functionality as a teletype with high speed papertape punch or reader. You can use this to load and save Basic programs as ASCII text files. Or use the KIM-1 tape routines built in KB9 Basic!

The console

The console is an emulation video terminal (ANSI color, subset) connected to an ACIA (a Motorola 6850) in the KIM-1. The KIM Monitor is patched to send or receive via the ACIA and is transparant to the user of the KIM-1 I/O routines (even the quirlks like flags and returned register values!)

Keyboard input, when the console window has focus, is sent to the serial input of the ACIA. No local echo. The KIM-1 monitor only accepts uppercase (hint: Caps lock!), user programs are free to use upper or lowercase.

Characters sent tot to ACIA output are received by the console window and handled as a VT100 would do, a subset of the ANSI/VT100 is implemented.
All keys of the PC are usable, SHIFT works. Note the translation of codes from the PC keyboard to ASCII characters is for the US International keyboard.
Other mappings are possible by changing the routine in console.pas: procedure TFconsole.FormKeyDown

Received characters by the console are handled as follows, a subset of the ANSI set.

Single control character


$01 : CursorHome 
$04 : CursorRight 
$05 : CursorUp 
BS  : Backspace 
TB  : Tab 
LF  : LineFeed 
FF  : ClearScreen 
CR  : CarriageReturn 
$13 : CursorLeft 
$16 : DeleteToEndofLine 
$18 : CursorDown 
DEL : Backspace  

ESC sequences

ESC[K             Clear from cursor to the end of the line
ESC[0K            Clear from cursor to the end of the line
ESC[1K            Clear from the beginning of the current line to the cursor
ESC[2K            Clear the whole line
ESC[J             Clear the screen from cursor
ESC[0J            Clear the screen from cursor
ESC[1J            Clear the screen until cursor position
ESC[2J            Clear the screen and move the cursor to 0-0, defined sprites are removed, loaded bitmaps are kept

Insert / Delete

ESC[1@            Insert a blank character position (shift line to the right)
ESC[1P            Delete a character position (shift line to the left)
ESC[1L            Insert blank line at current row (shift screen down)
ESC[1M            Delete the current line (shift screen up)

Move cursor

ESC[H             Move to 0-0
ESC[f             Move to 0-0
ESC[s             Save the cursor position 
ESC[u             Move cursor to previously saved position 
ESC[(Row);(Col)H  Move to row,column
ESC[(Row};(Col)f  Move to row,column
ESC[nA            Move the cursor up n lines
ESC[nB            Move the cursor down n lines
ESC[nC            Move the cursor forward n characters
ESC[nD            Move the cursor backward n characters

Attributes

ESC[m             Reset all attributes
ESC[0m            Reset all attributes
ESC[1m            bold
ESC[4m            underline
ESC[5m            italics
ESC[7m            Turn on reverse color
ESC[27m           Turn off reverse color

Color attributes

color     FG       BG      FG high  BG high 
--------------------------------------------
black    ESC[30m  ESC[40m  ESC[90m  ESC[100m
red      ESC[31m  ESC[41m  ESC[91m  ESC[101m
green    ESC[32m  ESC[42m  ESC[92m  ESC[102m
yellow   ESC[33m  ESC[44m  ESC[99m  ESC[103m
blue     ESC[34m  ESC[44m  ESC[94m  ESC[104m
magenta  ESC[35m  ESC[45m  ESC[95m  ESC[105m
cyan     ESC[36m  ESC[46m  ESC[96m  ESC[106m
black    ESC[37m  ESC[47m  ESC[97m  ESC[107m

FG = foreground
BG = background
High = higher intensity

  • Printable character (>= $20): placed on screen where te cursor is, cursor moved to next position
    Wrap around at end of line, screen scroll up when bottom line is reached
  • CR Carriage Return: cursor moved to beginning of line
  • LF LineFeed: cursor moved one line down, screen scroll up when bottom line is reached
  • FF FormFeed: clear screen, position cursor top left
  • ESC sequences start with the ESC character

The debugger

From the menu Simulator choose Debugger to show the debug window. This windows has step/single step/run buttons, shows the registers and flags, zeropage, memory and the stack. The Trace logfile facility may store a trace of what happened. The disassembler part shows a disassembly.

Several refresh buttons let you update the current state of the machine.

Single step, RUN, trace log

First set the PC to the first instruction of the program to test.

  • Step in: execute next instruction
  • Step over: execute next instruction but skip JSR subroutines
  • RUN: execute at maximum speed ( wait 0) or slow (wait x seconds between steps), use the STOP button to halt execution
  • Step n: execute n instructions full speed
  • Run to: execute instructions full instructions until the breakpoint or watchpoint location is reached or STOP pressed
  • You can set 1o code breakpoints, 10 memory watch points and wacthpoinst on registers A,X,, Y and Stackpointer, press the Breakpoints and Watches button to show the form to fill in as desired.
  • Trace log on/off: first set the Trace log file directory from the file Menu, then use any Step to have every instruction logged with status in the logfile and the tracelog.Note that this slows down execution a lot and the files can become large. So clean up regularly!
    The file name of the log is set to KIM1SIMtrace(datestamp).log.

Symbol table and the disassembler

The disassembler shows locations/labels in hex format. If the assembler symbol table is available (TASM can produce that as blank delimited list) you can load it and do some symbolic disassembly.
Load and show the symbol table from the menu “Symbol table”. Supported symbol table formats: TASM 32 bit and CA65 (part of CC65 suite).

RRIOT status display

From the menu Simulator choose RRIOT to show a windows with the current RRIOT status or you can enter new values for the various registers.
Press Refresh to update to the current state, it is not updated realtime.
The 6530-002, responsible for the KIM-1 hardware, is decoded to the relevant in/output bits.
Note that the simulator does not perform the KIM-1 LED/key functions this way. Code for output to the LED displays is currently present but commented out in the source.
Timing limiting is essential for this to work, the simulation now runs as fast as the host CPU can deliver.

The Profiler

Available from the ‘watches and breaks’ form or from the Window menu

This facility keeps track (once activated with the Profiling Check box) how much an instruction is executed,
Independent of the debugger, always available.

Use the Refresh button to see the current state, not automatically updated so it is no a high performance hit.
Any opcode, from o to 255, is counted. The display shows the maximum 65C02 instruction set.

You can save the profiler data to a CSV file, with instruction mnemonic and number of times executed per line.
Invalid instructions are marked as ‘Unknown’.

Compiling and building the simulator from source

Prerequisites

  • A modern PC and operating system. Windows 10 is where the software has been developed, Raspberry OS and Ubuntu have been tested. MacOS may work, but is untested
  • Development (Compile and run everywhere!) with Freepascal and Lazarus IDE, see https://www.lazarus-ide.org/
    Any Lazarus version above 2.0 will be OK.
  • The archive with the KIM-1 Simulator sources KIM1SIMs09.zip (or higher version).
  • Unpack in a folder, avoid blanks in folder and filenames
  • Start the IDE by clicking on KIM1SIM.lpi
  • Build with Run – Build
  • On Windows a Setup installable can be made with Inno Setup, KIM1SIM.iss and compile with Inno Studio.

Note that the font used is Courier New. Install ttf cour.ttf on Linux in .home/pi/.fonts to prevent substitution with artefacts

The include files with KIM ROM and 6502 code

If and when the ACIA routines and other routines in the KIM1SIM ROM are altered you need to rebuild the KIM1SIMrom.inc file.
Subfolder ‘romtoconst’ contains the binary of the original KIM ROMS (6530-002.bin, 6530-003.bin) and the additional ROM binary with ACIA routines (kimsimrom.bin).
The .inc files for the compilation of the KIM1SIM, to be placed in the main folder, are created with the program creatINC.exe, a console application (source included here).
Copy the the tree .inc files to the main folder and compile the KIM1SIM program again.

D:\myfiles\development\kim-1 simulator\romtoconst\creatINC.exe
kimrom002 include file created
kimrom003 include file created
kimsimrom include file created

Folder KIM-1 assembler sources

Here you find assembler sources of various tests. Assemble with TASM, included in the folder. See TASM.HTML for information.
It is convenient to compile from an editor like Notepad++, plugin NPPEXEC
with command to create intel hex file

"D:\myfiles\development\kim-1 simulator\KIM-1 assembler sources\tasm" -65 -x3 -g0 -s $(FILE_NAME) $(NAME_PART).ihex  $(NAME_PART).lst  -s $(NAME_PART).sym

or to create a binary file with

"D:\myfiles\development\kim-1 simulator\KIM-1 assembler sources\tasm" -65 -x3 -g3 -s $(FILE_NAME) $(NAME_PART).bin  $(NAME_PART).lst  -s $(NAME_PART).sym

Note that also symbol files are generated which can be read in by the debugger in the KIM-1 Simulator.

  • kim1sim6502test.asm : The 65(C)02 test, a program that runs on the TTY console
  • kimsimrom.asm : the source of the KIM-1 Simulator ROM at $F000 with ACIA support for KIM-1 TTY in/out
  • Various snippets used to test the CPU emulation

Changelog

  • V 0.9 October 2021 First public beta
  • V 0.9.1 November 2021 Fixed key 0 bug (Thanks Liu!)
  • V 0.9.2 November 2021 Scrollbars in Load/Save dialog boxes added, Linux tests
  • V 0.9.3 November 2021 Added CC65 format symboltable load, added search in symbol table, fixed label display error in disassembly
  • V 0.9.4 December 2021 emulated getch in kimsinrom.asm now returns with Y=$FF
  • V 0.10.0 January 2022 Added 10 breakpoints and 10 watch points in debugger
  • V 0.10.1 January 2022 Save memory bug solved
  • V 0.10.2 January 2022 Watchpoints on registers and Stackpointer added
  • V 0.11.0 January 2022 Profiler (count how much an opcode is executed) added, Windows main menu to get fast to one of the forms
  • V 0.12.0 February 2022 Console cursor control (not finished yet)
  • V 0.13.0 February 2022 Main screen updated, more help entries. Console updates (on screen menu for colors) and KIM-1 tape load and save emulation
  • V 0.13.1 February 2022 Tested on Ubuntu, small updates and bugs fixed
  • V 0.13.2 February 2022 Settings for work directory, KIM tape load/save added to Save/Load memory
  • V1.0 February 2022, all planned functionally implemented (the console is now ANSI color enabled)
  • V1.0.0.1 February 2022, NUM lock numeric keypad added, request for keyboard layout tests
  • V1.1.1 KIMDLE works: timer and KIM keyboard fixes (no key return $15)
  • V1.1.2 Settings for keyboard layout (US International and German for now), key handling KIM keypad and keyboard/console improved, free running timer
  • V1.1.4 April 2022 Improved design, use of debugger Run buttions stops main Run/Stop run state

HEXPAWN

A game by Robert Leedom, published in 6502 user notes #13, 1979. Typed in by Dominic Bumbaco so we can play it!

Paper tape and hex dump of the program
Original article

Suppress KIM-1 echo

Original article: KIM Kenner 17 page 14, Dutch, Hans Otten. Translation 2021 Hans Otten

Problem: the KIM-1 hardware is echoing incoming serial characters to the output, no echo in software involved. Very annoying!

In the KIM Kenner 1 Siep de Vries, founder of the Dutch KIM Club mentioned how in Focal for the 6502 a trick was built in to suppress the hardware echo by manipulating the TTY out bit. From the Focal disassembly:

34B1  2C 40 17          BIT H1740
34B4  30 F9             BMI H34AF       ;=>
34B6  AD 42 17          LDA H1742
34B9  29 FE             AND #$FE
34BB  8D 42 17          STA H1742
34BE  20 5A 1E          JSR H1E5A
34C1  48                PHA
34C2  AD 42 17          LDA H1742
34C5  29 FE             AND #$FE
34C7  09 01             ORA #$01
34C9  8D 42 17          STA H1742
34CC  68                PLA
34CD  18                CLC
34CE  60                RTS

Hardware echo

I took the idea and implemented the software (wihtout knowing then in 1980 the Focal disassembly!).

The echo of incoming serial to outgoing is shown in the next figures (from the KIM user manual and the KIM Circuit poster).

The TTY KEYBD signal goes via a transistor and NAND gate U15 to PA7 port of the 6532. That signal also goes to pin 10 input  of NAND gate U26  which is the TTY out line. This is the hardware echo. When the KIM-1 sends out a character it comes  from PB0 to pin 9 of of NAND gate U26 and so comes out to the TTY Out line.
Note that PB5 is connected via an inverter to NAND gate U15. The other input is TTY IN. Making PB5 high will make the TTY input PA7 deaf.
Note PB5 is also Audio out.

Suppress echo in software


The solution to suppress the echo is making output PB0 low. The NAND gate out will now stay high, ignoring any changes on the other input, which is the incoming serial character.
Only when receiving a character PBO should be made high. Also any incoming character will now not be echoed unless the program wants to receive a character!

Example program

In this routine the standard KIM-1 GETCH routine at $1E5A is encapsulated in a subroutine that prevents the echo by setting PB0. Note that this is not a complete block of the echo, it is only active when the program calls the blocking EGETCHAR. When the program sends out charactersto a dispaly, anything typed at the keyboard will also appear at the display.
The calling program is now responsible for the echoing!

0001   1000             echo .org $1000
0002   1000             ;
0003   1000             echoflag = $17E2 ; flag: 0 normal echo
0004   1000             SBD = $1742 ; KIM 6532 PIA B data register
0005   1000             GETCH = $1E5A ; KIM TTY Getch routine 
0006   1000             ;
0007   1000 AD E2 17    EGETCHAR LDA echoflag ; if notechoflag 
0008   1003 F0 08         beq normal ;  then normal echo 
0009   1005 AD 42 17      LDA SBD  ; else set TTY bit PB0 to 0 
0010   1008 29 FE         AND #$FE  
0011   100A 8D 42 17      STA SBD ; 
0012   100D 20 5A 1E    normal JSR GETCH ; get character from input
0013   1010 48            PHA ; save
0014   1011 AD 42 17      LDA SBD ; set TTY bit PB0 
0015   1014 09 01         ORA #$01 
0016   1016 8D 42 17      STA SBD 
0017   1019 68            PLA ; restore received character
0018   101A 60            RTS 
0019   101B               .end
0020   101B               tasm: Number of errors = 0

Does EGETCHAR work on the KIM-1 clones?

Micro-KIM and PAL-1: yes, the hardware is identical, IC numbers are different
Corsham Technology: yes, though the hardware for audio is not there, there is still a NAND gate IC17C coupling PA7 and PB0.

Enhanced solution: always deaf for input
If you study the hardware shown above you see PB5 also blocks the echo. The following routine tries to use this to make the input permanent deaf.

0001   1000             echo .org $1000
0002   1000             ;
0003   1000             echoflag = $17E2 ; flag: 0 normal echo
0004   1000             SBD = $1742 ; KIM 6532 PIA B data register
0005   1000             GETCH = $1E5A ; KIM TTY Getch routine 
0006   1000             ;
0007   1000             ; no echo when reading character
0008   1000             ; 
0009   1000 AD E2 17    EGETCHAR LDA echoflag ; if not echoflag 
0010   1003 F0 08         beq normal ;  then normal echo 
0011   1005 AD 42 17      LDA SBD  ; else set TTY bit PB0 to 
0012   1008 29 FE         AND #$FE 
0013   100A 8D 42 17      STA SBD ; 
0014   100D 20 5A 1E    normal JSR GETCH ; get character form input
0015   1010 48            PHA ; save
0016   1011 AD 42 17      LDA SBD ; set TTY bit PB0 
0017   1014 09 01         ORA #$01 
0018   1016 8D 42 17      STA SBD 
0019   1019 68            PLA ; restore received character
0020   101A 60            RTS 
0021   101B             ;
0022   101B             ; no echo only at wish if reading character
0023   101B             ; note that using tape I/O will leave PB5 low
0024   101B             ; 
0025   101B AD E2 17    DGETCHAR LDA echoflag ; if notechoflag 
0026   101E F0 05         beq dnormal ;  then normal echo 
0027   1020 AD 42 17      LDA SBD  ; else set TTY bit PB0 to 
0028   1023 29 FE         AND #$FE ; PB0 low
0029   1025 29 DF       dnormal AND #$DF ; PB5 low
0030   1027 8D 42 17      STA SBD ; 
0031   102A 20 5A 1E      JSR GETCH ; get character from input
0032   102D 48            PHA ; save
0033   102E AD 42 17      LDA SBD ; set TTY bit PB0 and PB5
0034   1031 09 21         ORA #$21 ; high
0035   1033 8D 42 17      STA SBD 
0036   1036 68            PLA ; restore received character
0037   1037 60            RTS 
0038   1038               .end
0039   1038               
0040   1038               tasm: Number of errors = 0

Note that using tape I/O will leave PB5 low, allowing echo, only set high when the program calls DGETCHAR.

Does DGETCHAR work on the KIM-1 clones?

Micro-KIM and PAL-1: yes, the hardware is identical, IC numbers are different
Corsham Technology: no, PB5 is not used.

KIM-1 manuals

On this page:

– Essential KIM-1 manuals delivered with a KIM-1: User, Programming, Hardware, KIM Hints, most in English, some in German.
– Circuit diagram poster
– Reference cards
– MOS Technology Cross assembler
– First Book of KIM
– Some basic articles


User Manual

User manual in HTML format
User manual in text format
User manual in PDF format (note page 18-25 of the ROM listing is missing)
Appendix with complete ROM listing in PDF format
Corrected page 17 of ROM listing
Revision of Rockwell KIM-1 User’s manual
Customer Errata Letters
Customer Errata Letter 1
Customer Errata Letter 2
Customer Errata Letter 3
Proofreading version of User Manual from Terry Holdt
MOS KIM-1 Handbuch, German version of KIM-1 User manual

Hardware manual

Hardware Manual January 1976 Second Edition Publications Number 6500-10A
Hardware Manual in ASCII format
MCS6500 Hardware Manual jan 1975 in PDF format
MCS6500 Hardware Manual jan 1976 second edition in PDF format
Hardware manual in HTML format
Rockwell 6500 Hardware Manual
MOS 6500 Hardware Handbuch
German version of Hardware manual

Programming manual

High-res quality typeset manual by Pickledlight. Local copy. Check to original for updates!
MCS6500 Microcomputer Family Programming Manual
MCS6500 Microcomputer Family Programming Manual Hardcover
Programming Manual
Programming Manual in PDF format
Programming Manual in HTML format
Programming manual appendix in HTML format
Rockwell 6500 Programming_Manual
MOS Microcomputers Programmier Handbuch,
German version of Programming manual

6502 Reference Cards

6502 Reference Cards collection
MOS Technology Reference Card, better quality, early one, ROR instruction missing, handwritten

MOS Technology Cross assembler

Scan-160408-0001 Cross assembler Manual, GE timeshare

KIM Hints

KIM hints
KIM-1 Hints PDF format
KIM-1 Hints smaller PDF format
KIM-1 Hints in text format
KIM-1 Hints in text format with additions and corrections

Circuit diagram poster

KIM-1 circuit diagram
Rockwell branded circuit diagram
KIM-1 poster in high resolution, large picture!
Redrawn KIM-1 circuit diagram

First Book of KIM

First Book of KIM
The First Book of KIM-1 in PDF format
The First Book of KIM-1, part in text format
The First Book of KIM-1 in HTML format
Sources of The First Book of KIM-1 in source and papertape format, Jeff Tranter

KIM-1 user guide and notes from Microcomputer Principles

KIM-1 Userguide
KIM-1 user guide and notes from the book “Microcomputer Principles featuring the 6502/KIM

Quick Reference by Jeff Trenter

KIM-1 Quick Reference by Jeff Trenter